BEING AS GIFT
.We have seen in the second part of the course that the
opens itself to a
without dominating such presence completely. The third part will investigate how thespirit offers itself to this presence. The
is dedicated to the analogy and to participation. Here, we will see how
reveals itself logically as it emerges andunfolds properly. We will elaborate on the diverse voices of being. The
explains, with the help of the two transcendentals, which are
, themanner through which
being offers itself as gift to the spirit.
I.The Analogy of Being
.Based on the Scholastic framework, the doctrine of analogy concerns, first of all,the logical applicability of our universal ideas to individuals that have their proper consistency. The doctrine of analogy regards therefore the problem of universality of our ideas and their relation to the reality, which assumes it. This doctrine opens the way of thinking the rigorous constitution of the predictability of the substances, preservingfirmly the distinction between essence and existence.Indeed, the substance is its essence, meaning to say an intelligible unity. But thefact of the unity of intelligibility is a priori, grounded on the unity of the existent. Thesubstance gathers in itself the accidents, which render its particularity, as the actactualizes its potency. The intelligibility cannot guarantee the principle of this unitydeparting from itself. The particular substantial unity in fact surpasses or transcends theuniversal essence. It actuates the universal essence, and renders itself to it as the actualinteriority of the intelligible.If the essence is simply an inadequate potency to the substantial act, the substancecannot be said essentially. Then, we are condemned not to know it. Any kind of judgement will be denied of it. It is, therefore, necessary that
the existential unity isexpressed by means of the essential unity
. Here, the essence, as intelligible form,manifests the existence intelligibly. The movement of the essence towards the existenceof the substance is considered as that which constitutes properly the analogical language.So, first, we will expound the doctrine of the logical forms of the analogy, as purely their instances on the intelligence of the idea of being. We will show then howthese logical forms take root in ontology. Finally, we will see how the grouping of finite beings is structured by means of the act of being. Here, the essence consists the presenceof its proper and unique act.