parts of Australia dating from 1975 in Townsville.Since then it has been detected at various times andin various carriers on ships, in machinery and in car tyres in South Australia, Perth and Darwin. In 1998 itwas trapped on a wharf in Cairns and similarly atWest Melbourne in 2002. Preventing the introductionand establishment of Aedes albopictus remains a highpriority because this mosquito has the potential tospread widely over Australia including southern areas.It can also transmit dengue and other arboviruses.Reservoir Humans are the only vertebrate hosts of the virus.There is a jungle cycle between monkeys andmosquitoes, but this plays no role in human disease.Mode of transmissionDengue is transmitted by the bite of an infectedmosquito, particularly Aedes aegypti. This was firstrecognised by workers in Queensland early in the20th century. Aedes aegypti breeds in fresh water andparticularly in man made containers such as old tyres,pot plant holders, buckets and tree hollows in urbanareas. Aedes albopictus is a mosquito common inSouth East Asia and Papua New Guinea and can alsobe an important vector. Other Aedes species areinvolved in the enzootic monkey cycle.Period of communicabilityThere is no evidence of person to persontransmission.Susceptibility & resistanceInfection with a serotype of dengue virus does notnecessarily confer immunity.Control measuresPreventive measuresThere are effective vaccines available against anumber of the dengue virus serotypes.Dengue fever can be prevented by:* mosquito control measures* personal protection measures such as longsleeves and mosquito repellents* avoidance of mosquito-prone areas.Control of caseIsolate the patient and prevent mosquito access untilfever subsides.Investigate the source of infection.Control of contactsNot applicable.Control of environment* Search for and eliminate breeding sites of Aedesaegypti in the urban area.* Use mosquito repellents, mosquito nets and other methods of personal protection.* Control Aedes aegypti near airports.* Prevent importation of new vectors, for exampleAedes albopictus.Outbreak measuresNot applicable.
Page content: Victorian statutory requirement |Infectious agent | Identification | Incubation period |Public health significance & occurrence | Reservoir |Mode of transmission | Period of communicability |Susceptibility & resistance | Control measures |Outbreak measures | Additional sources of informationVictorian statutory requirementMeasles (Group A disease) must be notifiedimmediately by telephone or fax followed by a writtennotification within five days.School exclusion for cases and contacts is:* cases should be excluded for at least four daysafter rash onset* immunised contacts do not need exclusion* unimmunised contacts should be excluded until14 days after the first day of appearance of rash in thelast case. If unimmunised contacts are vaccinatedwithin 72 hours of their first contact with the first caseor if they receive immunoglobulin within seven days of the contact they may return to school.Infectious agentMeasles virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus.IdentificationClinical featuresClinical features of measles include prodromal fever,a severe cough, conjunctivitis, coryza and Koplik’sspots on the buccal mucosa. These are present for three to four days prior to rash onset.