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Vacuum Systems Cookbook

Las Positas College Vacuum Technology 60A & 60BPage 6 Rights Reserved, Biltoft, Benapfl, and Swain Fall 2002

Chapter 1: Basic Skills

In this chapter we hope to present a review of basic skills in the areas of mathematics,unit conversions, use of the metric system, an introduction to the physical nature of matter, measurement techniques, and techniques for the presentation of data. At theend of each section we will include a bibliography for those of you wishing to exploreany of these areas more fully.

REVIEW of MATHEMATICS

Physical measurements you will perform will require accurate recording, calculation, andreporting of numbers. Numbers that we will use may be broken down into threecategories: integers, real numbers, and rational numbers. We will use the symbols x, /or ÷, +, and - to denote the mathematical functions multiply, divide, add, and subtract.

Integers

: whole numbers, either positive or negative

Example:

3, -7, 1,000,000

Real Numbers:

also called decimal numbers

Example:

5.4, 0.001, -12.34

Rational Numbers

: numbers expressed as a ratio of two numbers

Example:

2/3, 1/10 and -1/2.

Mathematical Operators

: addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (x), division(

÷

)

Equations

: Just as the name suggests, equations are mathematical statements inwhich the equality of two statements is expressed:

Example:

π

x 5 = 15.7 is a mathematical equation which reads

Pi multiplied by five isequal to fifteen point seven (or fifteen and seven tenths)

.

Variables

: Often we do not know the values for all of the expressions in an equation, sowe substitute letters or symbols in place of the numbers. Variables are also used in thewriting of generic equations (formulas) into which numbers are substituted later.

Example:

the circumference of a circle C having diameter D is givenby the equation:

circumference =

π

x

Dor

C D

π

=

In this example,

D

is a variable and can have any positive value.When variable are not separated by an operator, it is assumed tobe multiplication.

Las Positas College Vacuum Technology 60A & 60BPage 7 Rights Reserved, Biltoft, Benapfl, and Swain Fall 2002

Formulas

: Formulas are mathematical equations that have been worked out for you; allthat is required to solve a formula is to substitute appropriate numerical values in placeof the variables.

Example:

the mass flow rate of a vacuum system is given by theformula:

Q = S

x

P

Where

Q

= mass flow in Torr- liters per second,

S

= volumetric flow rate (or pumpingspeed) in liters per second, and

P

= pressure, expressed in Torr. Formulas used insimple vacuum calculations are given in appendix

X

, and formulas for areas andvolumes of simple geometric shapes are given in the appendix

Y

.

Exponential Notation

: Often in the process of performing calculations, we areinterested in multiplying a number by itself several times.

Example:

The area of a circle is equal to a constant (

π

) times thesquare of the radius (the radius multiplied by itself). In this example,one could write the square of the radius as: r x r, but it is morefrequently written as r

2

.

Here, r is the

base

and 2 is the called the

exponent

.

base

exponent

Number as apower of 10

Number multiplied as often as theexponent indicatesNumber, N

5

4

= 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 = 6252

3

= 2 x 2 x 2 = 810

6=

10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 10000003

2=

3 x 3 = 94

3

= 4 x 4 x 4 = 647

1

7 7

Exponents can be negative and/or real numbers; here are some examples:

25

0.5

=

√

25 = 52

-3

= 1/(2

3

)

1/8= 0.125125

1/3=

3

√

125 = 5100

-1/2=

1/(100

1/2

)= 1/10 = 0.14.5

-3.7

=

3.7

√

4.5= 2607

-1

1/7 0.14

Sample Problems:

1.1

Evaluate the following exponents: 2

5

,

10

3

,

56

0

.

1.2

Evaluate the following exponents: 4

0.5

,

10

-4

,

625

1/4

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