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The Yoga Tantras and the Social Context of Their Transmission to Tibet - Weinberger

The Yoga Tantras and the Social Context of Their Transmission to Tibet - Weinberger

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Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal 
(2010, 23:131-166)Taipei: Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies
中華佛學學報第二十三期 頁
131-166
(民國九十九年),臺北:中華佛學研究所 
ISSN:1017-7132
The Yoga Tantras and the Social Contextof Their Transmission to Tibet
Steven Weinberger 
Research Assistant, Religious Studies Department, University of Virginia
Manager, Tibetan and Himalayan Library
Abstract
The
Compendium of Principles
(
Sarva-tath
ā
 gata-tattva-sa
 graha-n
ā
ma-mah
ā
 y
ā
na-s
ū
tra, De bzhin gshegs pa thams cad kyi de kho na nyid bsdus pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo
)represents a watershed in the development of Indian Buddhist tantra and also played a centralrole in the transmission of tantric Buddhism from India to Tibet. This paper will briefly look atthe emergence in India of tantric Buddhist practices involving deity yoga and wrathful deitiesand activities, with a focus on the
Compendium of Principles
and its provenance, the traditionsthat grew up around it, and the cultural context in which the practices developed. The mainsection of this paper will examine the transmission of the
Compendium of Principles
and itsassociated texts and meditative systems from India to Tibet and the Tibetan attitudes towardtantra that it reflects. It will pay particular attention to issues of patronage, proscription, andother socio-political factors during (1) the first transmission of Buddhism (
 snga dar 
)in the eighth and ninth centuries, (2) the period following the collapse of the Tibetanempire, (3) the early part of the second transmission of Buddhism (
 phyi dar 
) in the tenthand eleventh centuries, and (4) the later period of the subsequent role of the Yoga Tantrasin Tibet.
Keywords:
Yoga Tantra; Tibet;
Tattvasa
 graha
; Padmasambhava;
Sarvadurgatipari
 ś
odhana
 
132
 
Chung-Hwa Buddhist Journal 
Volume 23 (2010)
瑜伽密續與其傳播至西藏的社會背景
Steven Weinberger 
維吉尼亞大學宗教所助理研究員西藏語喜馬拉雅圖書館主任摘要《佛說一切如來真實攝大乘現證三昧大教王經》代表印度佛教密續發展的分水嶺,同時在密教由印度傳至西藏的過程中扮演重要的角色。此篇文章著重於此經及其出處、當時所逐漸產生的修行之傳統發展及相關的文化脈絡,簡略地檢視有關本尊瑜伽、憤怒金剛與儀式的密教修行在印度之出現。此篇的重點在於檢視此經由印度到西藏的傳播及其相關的文本及禪修系統,並探討西藏人對此密續之態度,尤其 是在不同時期的支持、排斥的狀況及其他社會政治因素,其不同時期包含
(1)
第八及第九世紀第一次佛教傳播之時期 (前弘期)、
(2)
西藏王朝壞滅後之時期、
(3)
在第十及十一世紀佛教的第二次傳播早期(後弘期)及
(4)
在十二世紀以後西藏瑜伽密續時期。關鍵字:瑜伽密續、西藏、《金剛頂經》、蓮花生、《大乘觀想曼拏羅淨諸惡趣經》
 
The Yoga Tantras and the Social Context of Their Transmission to Tibet 133
Introduction
1
As the transmission of Buddhism from India to Tibet commenced on a large scale during theeighth century CE, the
Compendium of Principles
(
de kho na nyid bsdus pa
,
tattvasa
 graha
)
2
 and the tantric traditions associated with it in India formed the substance of mainstream tantrictraditions in Tibet. These traditions, which came to be classified as Yoga Tantra, played a crucialrole in the establishment (and reestablishment) of Buddhism in Tibet from the beginning of the first dissemination of Buddhism through the early phases of the second dissemination(late tenth and eleventh centuries). Even after later Indian traditions displaced them from thecentral position of importance in Tibet, these Yoga Tantra systems continued to be transmittedas influential and important tantric traditions.After briefly locating Yoga Tantra traditions within their Indian cultural context, I willexamine the translation and transmission of Yoga Tantra in Tibet against the backdrop of  broader issues that reflect Tibetan attitudes toward tantra, including imperial support and proscription, the royal Vairocana cult, officially-sanctioned translation activity, and practicesinvolving violence, subjugation, and sex. This analysis will focus primarily on two texts, the
Compendium of Principles
and the
 Purification of All Bad Transmigrations
,
3
during threehistorical periods: the first dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet, the period following the collapseof the Tibetan empire, and the beginning of the second dissemination of Buddhism. I will then
1 I would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their many helpful suggestions andcomments.2 The Tibetan translation of this text in the Peking edition of the Kangyur is
 De bzhin gshegs pathams cad kyi de kho na nyid bsdus pa zhes bya ba theg pa chen po’i mdo, Sarvatath
ā
 gatatattvasa
 grahan
ā
mamah
ā
 y
ā
nas
ū
tra
, P112 (217.1-283.2.2). The text in the Degé (
 sde dge
) edition,vol. 84, 1b.1-142b.1, is available online from the Tibetan and Himalayan Library (includingan electronic edition and scans): http://www.thlib.org/encyclopedias/literary/canons/kt/catalog. php#cat=d/0481.There are two extant Sanskrit versions of the text. The
rst has several editions: a photographicreproduction in Lokesh Chandra and David Snellgrove,
Sarva-tath
ā
 gata-tattva-sa
 graha: Facsimile Reproduction of a Tenth Century Sanskrit Manuscript from Nepal 
(1981); a romanizedSanskrit version in Isshi Yamada,
Sarva-tath
ā
 gata-tattva-sa
 graha n
ā
ma mah
ā
 y
ā
na-s
ū
tra: ACritical Edition Based on the Sanskrit Manuscript and Chinese and Tibetan Translations
(1981);and a devanagari version in Chandra (1987). There is also a critical edition produced from bothof the extant manuscripts as well as Chinese and Tibetan translations. (Horiuchi 1983)3
 Puri
  fi
cation of All Bad Transmigrations, De bzhin gshegs pa dgra bcom pa yang dag par rdzogs pa’i sangs rgyas ngan song thams cad yongs su sbyong ba gzi brjid kyi rgyal po’i brtag pa zhes bya ba
,
Sarvadurgatipari
 ś
odhanatejor 
ā
 jasya tath
ā
 gatasya arhata
samyaksambuddhasyakalpan
ā
ma
, in The Tibetan Tripitaka: Peking Edition, ed. Daisetz T. Suzuki, P116 (Toh. 483),vol. 5.

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