people with greater musical talent, embarrassed by a realization of aﬂawed performance, and amused when reﬂecting on the seriousnessof the people involved and the gravity one’s own reaction.Both EI and EC have been compared to cognitive abilities, such asverbalintelligence(Averill&Thomas-Knowles,1991;Mayer,Salovey,Caruso, & Sitarenios, 2003), but, as yet, they have not been studiedin relation to each other. The question arises as to whether the re-lationship between EI and EC is parallel to that of cognitive intel-ligence and creativity. That is, will these two abilities be mostlyuncorrelated, or will they be more highly related?Both EI and EC may be related to creative behavior. In one study,EC was related to behavioral creativity that involved expression of emotion(e.g.,writingalovenarrative;Gutbezahl&Averill, 1996). EImight also be associated with creativity. One component of EI is theability to use emotions to facilitate thought processes (Mayer, 2001;Mayer & Salovey, 1997), such as when directing one’s efforts intoactivities best performed in certain emotional states (e.g., Palfai &Salovey, 1993). AnotherEIabilityconcernstheregulation ofemotiontoreducenegativeormaintainpositiveemotions.Positiveemotionscanthen enhance creativity by increasing ﬂexibility and breadth of thinking(e.g., Estrada, Isen, & Young, 1994; Isen, 1999; Isen, Daubman, &Nowicki, 1987; Isen, Johnson, Mertz, & Robinson, 1985).The purpose of this research is to: (a) contribute to the constructvalidation of EI and EC by jointly testing their structure and (b)investigate whether each construct predicts creative behavior. InStudy 1, we compare measures of EI and EC and correlate them withcreativity on a laboratory poetry-writing task (Amabile, 1985). InStudy 2, we replicate the relations between EI and EC and examinehow they relate to self-reported creative behavior in the arts. Finally,in Study 3 we use conﬁrmatory factor analysis to test the model of EIand EC as distinct abilities.
Cognitive Intelligence and Creativity
Both intelligence and creativity include mental abilities but differ inthe mental operations involved in these abilities. Intelligence is theability to successfully solve problems that require analytical thinkingin response to well-deﬁned tasks, while creative ability refers tooriginality and ﬂuency of ideas on open-ended tasks (Getzels &
Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity