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Emotional Creativity

Emotional Creativity

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Published by Alison Gow
Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity
Zorana Ivcevic, Marc A. Brackett, and John D. Mayer.

Three studies examined the relationship between emotional
intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether each
construct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that the
relationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship between
cognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were expected
to be two distinct sets of abilities.
1University of New Hampshire
2Yale University
Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity
Zorana Ivcevic, Marc A. Brackett, and John D. Mayer.

Three studies examined the relationship between emotional
intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether each
construct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that the
relationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship between
cognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were expected
to be two distinct sets of abilities.
1University of New Hampshire
2Yale University

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Published by: Alison Gow on May 26, 2011
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Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity
Zorana Ivcevic,
1
Marc A. Brackett,
2
and John D. Mayer
1
1
University of New Hampshire
2
 Yale Universit
ABSTRACT
Three studies examined the relationship between emo-tional intelligence (EI) and emotional creativity (EC) and whether eachconstruct was predictive of creative behavior. It was hypothesized that therelationship between EI and EC corresponds to the relationship betweencognitive intelligence and creative ability. Therefore, EI and EC were ex-pected to be two distinct sets of abilities. Intercorrelations and confirma-tory factor analyses supported the hypothesis. Furthermore, it washypothesized that EC, but not EI, would correlate with behavioral cre-ativity. Self-report measures of EC significantly correlated with labora-tory and self-reported creativity measures in both studies, while abilitymeasures of EC only correlated with self-reported artistic activity. EI wasuncorrelated with creative behavior.
Intelligence is associated with one’s level of academic achievementand theprestige of one’s occupation.Creativity, onthe otherhand, isassociated with the degree to which a person engages in novel en-deavors. Both intelligence and creativity are considered mental abil-ities that can be measured with performance tests. Intelligence is thecapacity to reason validly about a domain of information, and ittypically requires converging on a single answer. In order to receive ahigh score on an intelligence test, a person’s responses must satisfya criterion of correctness. Creativity, on the other hand, requires
Zorana Ivcevic and John D. Mayer, Department of Psychology, University of NewHampshire; Marc A. Brackett, Department of Psychology, Yale University.The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Rebecca Warner, who hascommented on earlier drafts of the article. We would also like to thank KimberlyMayer, who assisted in scoring tests of creative ability.All correspondence regarding this manuscript can be directed to: Zorana Ivcevic,Department of Psychology, Conant Hall, 10 Library Way, University of New Hamp-shire, Durham, NH 03824. E-mail: zivcevic@unh.edu.
Journal of Personality
75:2, April 2007
r
2007, Copyright the AuthorsJournal compilation
r
2007, Blackwell Publishing, Inc.DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00437.x
 
generation of multiple alternatives that are both novel and appro-priate (Lubart, 1994). Thus, to receive a high score on a test of cre-ative ability, a person’s responses must diverge from what iscustomary (Sternberg & O’Hara, 1999).A number of theories have been proposed about the relations be-tween intelligence and creativity. These theories postulate (a) thatcreativity is a subset of intelligence (Guilford, 1975); (b) that cre-ativity and intelligence are relatedor partially overlappingconstructs(Barron & Harrington, 1981); or (c) that creativity and intelligenceare independent abilities (Wallach & Kogan, 1965). Empirically,across a number of studies, the correlation between intelligenceand creative ability has been rather low (Runco & Albert, 1986;Torrance,1975; Wallach& Kogan, 1965),supporting the notion thatthese constructs are mostly distinct mental abilities.Over the last few decades, research on intelligence has expandedand now encompasses both verbal/analytic reasoning skills and do-main specific skills, including emotion-related abilities. Emotionalintelligence (EI), for instance, is defined as the ability to perceiveemotions accurately, use emotions to enhance thinking, understandand label emotions, and regulate emotions in the self and others(Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Similar to cognitive intelligence, perform-ance tests of EI require reasoning skills, and correct answers on suchtests converge to specific criterion. For example, an item measuringUnderstanding Emotions, one component of EI, might ask peoplewhether the meaning of optimism is closer to the anticipation of happy outcomes or to a lack regret, where the former is more ac-curate. Parallel to EI, at least one new domain of creativity has beenintroduced—emotional creativity. Emotional creativity (EC) is theability to experience and express original, appropriate, and authenticcombinations of emotions (Averill & Thomas-Knowles, 1991). Sim-ilar to performance measures of cognitive creativity, measures of ECrequire divergence from the norm. Whereas EI pertains to how aperson reasons with emotions, EC pertains to the richness of a per-son’s emotional life. As such, a person with high EI will have know-ledge of and may use a variety of regulation strategies, whereas aperson with high EC will experience more complex emotions. As anexample, during an audition for a community musical theater, a per-sonhighinEIwouldrecognizeheremotionsoftensionandstressandregulate them in order to give the best performance. On the otherhand, a person with high EC would, at the same time, be jealous of 
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Ivcevic, Brackett, Mayer
 
people with greater musical talent, embarrassed by a realization of aflawed performance, and amused when reflecting on the seriousnessof the people involved and the gravity one’s own reaction.Both EI and EC have been compared to cognitive abilities, such asverbalintelligence(Averill&Thomas-Knowles,1991;Mayer,Salovey,Caruso, & Sitarenios, 2003), but, as yet, they have not been studiedin relation to each other. The question arises as to whether the re-lationship between EI and EC is parallel to that of cognitive intel-ligence and creativity. That is, will these two abilities be mostlyuncorrelated, or will they be more highly related?Both EI and EC may be related to creative behavior. In one study,EC was related to behavioral creativity that involved expression of emotion(e.g.,writingalovenarrative;Gutbezahl&Averill, 1996). EImight also be associated with creativity. One component of EI is theability to use emotions to facilitate thought processes (Mayer, 2001;Mayer & Salovey, 1997), such as when directing one’s efforts intoactivities best performed in certain emotional states (e.g., Palfai &Salovey, 1993). AnotherEIabilityconcernstheregulation ofemotiontoreducenegativeormaintainpositiveemotions.Positiveemotionscanthen enhance creativity by increasing flexibility and breadth of thinking(e.g., Estrada, Isen, & Young, 1994; Isen, 1999; Isen, Daubman, &Nowicki, 1987; Isen, Johnson, Mertz, & Robinson, 1985).The purpose of this research is to: (a) contribute to the constructvalidation of EI and EC by jointly testing their structure and (b)investigate whether each construct predicts creative behavior. InStudy 1, we compare measures of EI and EC and correlate them withcreativity on a laboratory poetry-writing task (Amabile, 1985). InStudy 2, we replicate the relations between EI and EC and examinehow they relate to self-reported creative behavior in the arts. Finally,in Study 3 we use confirmatory factor analysis to test the model of EIand EC as distinct abilities.
Background
Cognitive Intelligence and Creativity
Both intelligence and creativity include mental abilities but differ inthe mental operations involved in these abilities. Intelligence is theability to successfully solve problems that require analytical thinkingin response to well-defined tasks, while creative ability refers tooriginality and fluency of ideas on open-ended tasks (Getzels &
Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Creativity 
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