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Violence-Related Firearm Deaths Metropolitan Areas

Violence-Related Firearm Deaths Metropolitan Areas

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Published by: Ken Connor on May 27, 2011
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Weekly / Vol. 60 / No. 18 May 13, 2011
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Violence-related irearm deaths remain an important publichealth concern in the United States. During 2006–2007, atotal o 25,423 irearm homicides and 34,235 irearm suicidesoccurred among U.S. residents (
). These national totalsinclude 4,166 irearm homicides and 1,446 irearm suicidesamong youths aged 10–19 years; the rate o irearm homicidesamong youths slightly exceeded the rate among persons o allages. This report presents statistics on irearm homicides andirearm suicides or major metropolitan areas and cities, withan emphasis on youths aged 10–19 years in recognition o theimportance o early prevention eorts. It integrates analysesconducted by CDC in response to requests or detailed inor-mation, arising rom a heightened ocus on urban violence by the media, the public, and policymakers over the past year.Firearm homicides and suicides and annual rates were tabulatedor the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs)and their central cities* or 2006–2007, using data rom theNational Vital Statistics System and the U.S. Census Bureau.Firearm homicide rates in approximately two thirds o theMSAs exceeded the national rate, and 86% o cities had rateshigher than those o their MSAs. The youth irearm homiciderate exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% o the MSAs and in 88%o the cities. Firearm suicide rates in just over hal o the MSAs were below the national rate, and 55% o cities had rates below those o their MSAs. Youth irearm suicide rates in the MSAsand cities were collectively low compared with all-ages rates.Such variations in irearm homicide and irearm suicide rates, with respect to both urbanization and age, should be consid-ered in the continuing development o prevention programsdirected at reducing irearm violence.Comprehensive vital statistics data rom the National VitalStatistics System (
) or 2006–2007 (the most recent available) were used to identiy irearm homicides and irearm suicidesamong U.S. residents. Geographic codes indicating county and city o residence were used to tabulate irearm homicideand suicide counts or the 50 largest MSAs (by populationrank as o mid-year 2007) and or 62 cities within theseMSAs. Tabulated counts were combined with U.S. CensusBureau population estimates or MSAs and cities to calculateannual irearm homicide and irearm suicide rates or personso all ages (but excluding persons aged <10 years or suicidesbecause intent to inlict sel-harm is not typically attributedto young children). Rates were similarly calculated or youthsaged 10–19 years. The all-ages rates were age-adjusted to theyear 2000 U.S. standard age proile.To acilitate broader geographic assessment, MSAs wereclassiied by region (Midwest, Northeast, South, and West) asdeined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Three MSAs cross regionalboundaries; these MSAs were assigned to the region includingtheir largest city.MSA-level and city-level statistics involving irearm homicideor irearm suicide counts <20 are not reported individually because o concerns related to statistical reliability and dataconidentiality. However, such data were included in compositerate calculations or all MSAs and all cities combined.The irearm homicide rate in the 50 largest MSAs collectively  was 5.2 per 100,000 persons per year, and 66% o these MSAs(33 o 50) had rates exceeding the national rate o 4.2 (Table).
Violence-Related Firearm Deaths Among Residents o Metropolitan Areasand Cities — United States, 2006–2007
* An MSA is deined by the U.S. Oice o Management and Budget as “a corearea containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent com-munities.” The central cities reerred to in this report generally comprise thecore areas.
series o publications is published by the Oice o Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers or Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),U.S. Department o Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Suggested citation:
Centers or Disease Control and Prevention. [Article title]. MMWR 2011;60:[inclusive page numbers].
Centers or Disease Control and Prevention
Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH,
Harold W. Jae, MD, MA,
 Associate Director for Science 
 James W. Stephens, PhD,
Director, Office of Science Quality 
Stephen B. Thacker, MD, MSc,
Deputy Director for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services 
Stephanie Zaza, MD, MPH,
Director, Epidemiology and Analysis Program Office 
MMWR Editorial and Production Sta 
Ronald L. Moolenaar, MD, MPH,
 John S. Moran, MD, MPH,
Deputy Editor,
Robert A. Gunn, MD, MPH,
 Associate Editor,
Teresa F. Rutledge,
 Managing Editor,
Douglas W. Weatherwax,
Lead Technical Writer-Editor 
Donald G. Meadows, MA, Jude C. Rutledge,
Martha F. Boyd,
Lead Visual Information Specialist 
Malbea A. LaPete, Julia C. Martinroe,Stephen R. Spriggs, Terraye M. Starr
Visual Information Specialists 
Quang M. Doan, MBA, Phyllis H. King
Information Technology Specialists 
MMWR Editorial Board
 William L. Roper, MD, MPH, Chapel Hill, NC, ChairmanVirginia A. Caine, MD, Indianapolis, IN Jonathan E. Fielding, MD, MPH, MBA, Los Angeles, CA David W. Fleming, MD, Seattle, WA  William E. Halperin, MD, DrPH, MPH, Newark, NJKing K. Holmes, MD, PhD, Seattle, WA Deborah Holtzman, PhD, Atlanta, GA  John K. Iglehart, Bethesda, MDDennis G. Maki, MD, Madison, WIPatricia Quinlisk, MD, MPH, Des Moines, IA Patrick L. Remington, MD, MPH, Madison, WIBarbara K. Rimer, DrPH, Chapel Hill, NC John V. Rullan, MD, MPH, San Juan, PR  William Schaner, MD, Nashville, TN Anne Schuchat, MD, Atlanta, GA Dixie E. Snider, MD, MPH, Atlanta, GA  John W. Ward, MD, Atlanta, GA 
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
574 MMWR / May 13, 2011 / Vol. 60 / No. 18
The central cities within these MSAs collectively had an annualall-ages irearm homicide rate o 9.7, and 86% o these cit-ies (48 o 56 cities with reportable all-ages irearm homicidestatistics) had rates exceeding those o their MSAs. The youthirearm homicide rate was 6.8 or the 50 largest MSAs com-bined, and exceeded the all-ages rate in 80% o MSAs (33 o 41 MSAs with reportable youth irearm homicide statistics).The central cities collectively had a youth irearm homiciderate o 14.6; the youth rate exceeded the all-ages rate in 88%o cities (28 o 32 cities with reportable youth statistics). Malesaccounted or more than 85% o irearm homicides (all ages)nationally and or all MSAs collectively. Although irearm homicide rates tended to be higher withincreasing urbanization and among youth relative to personso all ages, this was not the inding or irearm suicide rates.The 50 largest MSAs collectively had an annual all-ages irearmsuicide rate o 5.0 per 100,000 persons aged ≥10 years, and52% o these MSAs (26 o 50) had rates lower than the nationalrate o 6.5. Central cities within these MSAs collectively hadan annual all-ages irearm suicide rate o 4.7, and 55% o thesecities (27 o 49 cities with reportable all-ages irearm suicidestatistics) had rates lower than those o their MSAs. Youthirearm suicide rates were comparatively low, with a compositerate o 1.3 or the 50 largest MSAs and an identical compositerate o 1.3 or their central cities. Males accounted or morethan 87% o irearm suicides (ages ≥10 years) nationally andor all MSAs collectively.Notable patterns by geographic region were observed. All-ages irearm homicide rates generally were higher or MSAs inthe Midwest (seven o 10 above the median MSA rate o 5.4)and South (13 o 21 above the median rate) than or MSAs in
What is already known on this topic?Firearm-related suicides and homicides were the ourth andith leading causes o injury death in the United States during2006–2007, together accounting or approximately 30,000atalities each year. Nationally, the irearm homicide rate amongyouths aged 10–19 years slightly exceeded the rate or personso all ages.What is added by this report?Compared with the national rate o 4.2 per 100,000 persons peryear, irearm homicide rates generally were higher or largemetropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), with a rate o 5.2 overall;the highest rates were in central cities. Youth irearm homiciderates exceeded all-ages rates in many MSAs and cities. Incontrast, irearm suicide rates were not higher in MSAs andcities than or the nation as a whole, and rates among youthwere lower than or all ages combined.What are the implications or public health practice?National and state prevention programs directed at reducingirearm violence should ocus on youths, particularly in centralcities, to reduce the burden o irearm-related mortality in theUnited States. Initiatives designed to reduce violent deaths inurban areas can draw upon a growing evidence base oreectively addressing behaviors that underlie violenceinvolving youths.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR / May 13, 2011 / Vol. 60 / No. 18 575See table ootnotes on page 577.
TABLE. Numbers and annual rates (per 100,000) o irearm homicides and suicides or the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), byage group — United States, 2006–2007*
MSA (central city or cities)Firearm homicidesFirearm suicidesAll agesAges 1019 yrsAges 10 yrsAges 1019 yrsNo.Rate
1. New York; northern New Jersey; Long Island1,2123.32044.14911.5
New York City, New York (ive boroughs)6844.01004.91390.9
City oNewark, New Jersey15325.43847.4
2. Los Angeles; Long Beach; Santa Ana1,6126.141011.16873.3
City oLos Angeles, Caliornia7499.218717.31903.0
City oLong Beach, Caliornia686.72315.2283.9
City oSanta Ana, Caliornia324.4
City oAnaheim, Caliornia243.3
3. Chicago; Naperville; Joliet1,1526.02539.34913.1240.9City oChicago, Illinois70011.615020.01072.3
4. Dallas; Fort Worth; Arlington5384.2704.06176.3321.8City oDallas, Texas2579.8289.01175.8
City oFort Worth, Texas725.4
City oArlington, Texas
5. Philadelphia; Camden; Wilmington8997.81669.94834.6
City oPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania64420.013030.11114.3
6. Houston; Sugar Land; Baytown7656.71157.05936.7321.9City oHouston, Texas56112.98916.12236.6
7. Miami; Fort Lauderdale; Pompano Beach6576.31128.05475.4
City oMiami, Florida16023.73542.0689.8
8. Washington, District oColumbia; Arlington; Alexandria5905.5926.43403.8
City oWashington, District oColumbia24919.04632.5201.9
9. Atlanta; Sandy Springs; Marietta6616.2845.75626.7211.4City oAtlanta, Georgia16817.22623.4374.8
10. Boston; Cambridge; Quincy1671.9403.41411.7
City oBoston, Massachusetts926.22415.3
11. Detroit; Warren; Livonia7929.31179.14365.5
City oDetroit, Michigan58435.99231.7735.5
12. San Francisco; Oakland; Fremont5767.110610.72423.2
City oSan Francisco, Caliornia1036.7
City oOakland, Caliornia19026.64247.7
13. Phoenix; Mesa; Scottsdale5556.7968.56169.0332.9City oPhoenix, Arizona33110.65512.52088.9
City oMesa, Arizona424.4
14. Riverside; San Bernardino; Ontario3964.8805.83565.6
City oRiverside, Caliornia293.9
15. Seattle; Tacoma; Bellevue1582.3242.93466.0
City oSeattle, Washington483.6
16. Minneapolis; St. Paul; Bloomington1191.8252.82544.7
City oMinneapolis, Minnesota607.1
17. San Diego; Carlsbad; San Marcos1492.4303.72515.0
City oSan Diego, Caliornia792.8
18. St. Louis3957.28310.53376.8
City oSt. Louis, Missouri17524.14650.2457.0
19. Tampa; St. Petersburg; Clearwater1793.5213.23957.9
City oTampa, Florida365.3
20. Baltimore and Towson54310.39612.92354.9
City oBaltimore, Maryland41429.78045.8403.4
21. Denver; Aurora; Broomield1222.5264.13538.5
City oDenver, Colorado696.32017.7828.1
City oAurora, Colorado
22. Pittsburgh1874.4355.82966.7
City oPittsburgh, Pennsylvania7912.52430.3285.1
23. Portland; Vancouver; Beaverton621.4
City oPortland, Oregon242.2

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