ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
An organisation always refers to people; it is developed for people. People interact with oneanotherin some way or other in organisations. These interactions are specified by some sort of structure.These interactions are ordered to achieve some specific joint objectives.
1.1.2 Organisation as a Process
as a process means identifying and grouping the activities to be performed,assigning duties or responsibilities and delegating authority. It involves establishingrelationships among the people for the purpose of enabling them to work most effectively inachieving the objectives for which the organisation is set up. Thus, organisation as a processrefers to certain dynamic aspects like what tasks are to be performed, who is to do them, howthe tasks are to be grouped, who is to report tc whom and where the decisions have to be made,etc. This process view includes both differentiation and integration of organisational activities.As a process, the organisation function of management involves the following steps.
(i)Identifying the work
: The first logical step in the organisation is to identify the workthat must be done to achieve the organisational objectives. Every organisation isestablished to attain certain objectives. The objective of a business unit is to produceand distribute goods and services and thereby earn maximum profits. A hospital isestablished to provide medical care to the sick people. A cricket team is established toplay and win the matches. The work to achieve these objectives should be identified,classified in a systematic way so th.-’t each person in the organisation gets a separateand distinct task.
(ii)Division of work
: After identifying the work to be performed, the next step is todivide the work systematically so that it can be distributed among the personnel insuch a way that everyone gets his share of work. Division and distribution of work isnecessary because no one can handle the total work in an organisation single-handed.The total work load of a distributive agency can be divided into purchase, storage,display, advertising, sales, correspondence, accounting, etc.
(ii)Grouping the work
: Division of work necessitates the groupihg of work or tocoordinate the divided work. That is to say, similar activities are grouped togetherand departments are created. For example, all the activities concerned with thepurchases are kept under the head of purchasing department, all the activitiesconcerned with the finance and accounting are brought together under ‘Finance andaccounting’ department etc. In order to provide for smooth flow of work, it is absolutelyessential to group the similar activities under one umbrella. Further, responsible peopleare asked to head the concerned department that is created in this process. For instance,purchase department is headed by purchase manager; accounting department isheaded by the accountant; sales department is headed by. the marketing manager,etc.
Assignment of duties : Not only that various departments are headed by competentindividuals, within each department duties are to be assigned to all the people. Theassignment of duties to each and every individual in the organisation should beappropriate, taking into consideration the qualifications and experience, capacity of the people to perform the given tasks, etc.