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Management of Relationship -1

Management of Relationship -1

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Published by Deepak Ehn
ICWA_FOUNDATION_Organisation&management
ICWA_FOUNDATION_Organisation&management

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Published by: Deepak Ehn on May 28, 2011
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12/20/2012

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188
ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
MANAGEMENT OF RELATIONSHIP
This Study Note includes
Study Note - 5
MANAGEMENT OF RELATIONSHIP (PART - I)
Nature of Planning
Planning DefinedUtility or Importance of PlanningLimitations of PlanningPrinciples of Effective PlanningPurposes of PlanningImportance of Forecasting as an Element of PlanningTechniques of PlanningDimensions of PlanningTypes of Plans:Single Use and Standing PlansPlanning Premises
Forecasting
Elements of Business ForecastingTechniques of ForecastingAdvantages of ForecastingLimitations of Forecasting
Decision Making
Types of DecisionThe Decision Making ProcessClassification of DecisionsSteps in the Process of Decision MakingThe Environment of Decision MakingThe Importance of Information in Decision MakingPrinciples and Guidelines for making Effective Decisions
Organising
Organising Process
Staffing
Importance of StaffingStaffing ProcessSource of RecruitmentMethods of TrainingPlacement and Orientation or Induction
Directing
Importance of ‘Directing Function of Management’
 
189
ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
Supervision
Role of SupervisorFunction of Supervisor
Communication
Importance of Communication in OrganisationsThe Communication Process
Meaning and Nature of Motivation
Importance of MotivationTheories of MotivationDesign of Reward System
Controlling
The Control ProcessControlling ResponsibilitiesRelationship between Planning and ControlRequirements of an Effective Control SystemPrinciples of ControlSome Techniques of ControlCoordination
Question for Review and Discussion
 
190
ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
MANAGEMENT OF RELATIONSHIP
5.1. NATURE OF PLANNING
Planning is an important function of management. Planning is an activity by which managersanalyze present conditions to determine ways of reaching a desired future state. It is allpervasive. Planning is both an organisational necessity and a managerial responsibility.Through planning, organizations choose goals based on estimates or forecasts of the future.Concern for future is intensified by the fact of relentless, unremitting change. The purpose of planning, in the words of Dalton McFarland, is two fold: to determine appropriate goals, andto prepare for adoptive and innovative change.No organisation is free of change, so all must plan effectively for survival and growth.Irrespective of the fact whether the manager is concerned with external or internal forces,planning helps an organisation to avoid becoming victim of change. Instead, it gains ameasure of control and influence over its destiny. To make plans is to consider decisionsand their probable consequences. Adopted plans become benchmarks against which to judge the ongoing performance. Planning is thus concerned with the future course of action .Planning involves deciding in advance what is to be done, where, how and by whom it isto be done. A manager, while planning, outlines a course of action to be followed in future,and thereby achieving the desired results for the enterprise as a whole as well as eachdepartmental unit. Planning, in simple words, is looking ahead. It is the conscious determinationof a future course of action to achieve the desired result.
5.1.1. Planning Defined
Planning is defined by different scholars in different ways. But almost all agree that planningis an intellectual process, it is a process of selecting and relating the facts in the visualizationand formation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve the desired results. Someof the definitions of planning can be captured here under:Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of course of action, basing of decisions on purpose, facts and considered estimates. (Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell).The plan of action is, at one and the same time, the line of action to be followed, the stages to gothrough , and methods to use. It is a kind of future picture wherein approximate events areoutlined with some distinctness, whilst remote.Events appear progressively less distinct, and it entails the running of the business as foreseenand provided against over a definite period. (Henry Fayol).Planning is defined as the activity by which managers analyse present conditions to determineways of reaching a desired future stage. It embodies the skills of anticipation, influencing, andcontrolling the nature and direction of change. (Dalton McFarland)Planning is defined as anticipatory decision making. (Russell L. Ackolf).Planning is the function that determines in advance what should be done. It consists of selectingthe enterprise objectives, policies, programmes, procedures, and other means of achieving the

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