ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS
MANAGEMENT OF RELATIONSHIP
5.1. NATURE OF PLANNING
Planning is an important function of management. Planning is an activity by which managersanalyze present conditions to determine ways of reaching a desired future state. It is allpervasive. Planning is both an organisational necessity and a managerial responsibility.Through planning, organizations choose goals based on estimates or forecasts of the future.Concern for future is intensified by the fact of relentless, unremitting change. The purpose of planning, in the words of Dalton McFarland, is two fold: to determine appropriate goals, andto prepare for adoptive and innovative change.No organisation is free of change, so all must plan effectively for survival and growth.Irrespective of the fact whether the manager is concerned with external or internal forces,planning helps an organisation to avoid becoming victim of change. Instead, it gains ameasure of control and influence over its destiny. To make plans is to consider decisionsand their probable consequences. Adopted plans become benchmarks against which to judge the ongoing performance. Planning is thus concerned with the future course of action .Planning involves deciding in advance what is to be done, where, how and by whom it isto be done. A manager, while planning, outlines a course of action to be followed in future,and thereby achieving the desired results for the enterprise as a whole as well as eachdepartmental unit. Planning, in simple words, is looking ahead. It is the conscious determinationof a future course of action to achieve the desired result.
5.1.1. Planning Defined
Planning is defined by different scholars in different ways. But almost all agree that planningis an intellectual process, it is a process of selecting and relating the facts in the visualizationand formation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve the desired results. Someof the definitions of planning can be captured here under:Planning is an intellectual process, the conscious determination of course of action, basing of decisions on purpose, facts and considered estimates. (Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell).The plan of action is, at one and the same time, the line of action to be followed, the stages to gothrough , and methods to use. It is a kind of future picture wherein approximate events areoutlined with some distinctness, whilst remote.Events appear progressively less distinct, and it entails the running of the business as foreseenand provided against over a definite period. (Henry Fayol).Planning is defined as the activity by which managers analyse present conditions to determineways of reaching a desired future stage. It embodies the skills of anticipation, influencing, andcontrolling the nature and direction of change. (Dalton McFarland)Planning is defined as anticipatory decision making. (Russell L. Ackolf).Planning is the function that determines in advance what should be done. It consists of selectingthe enterprise objectives, policies, programmes, procedures, and other means of achieving the