STUDY NOTE –6
6.1 DATA :
A statistician begins the work with the collection of data i.e. numerical facts. The data so collected arecalled
). It is from these raw materials, a statistician analysis after proper classification and tabulation, for the final decision or conclusion. Therefore it is undoubtedlyimportant that the raw data collected should be clear, accurate and reliable.Before the collection of data, every enquiry must have a definite object and certain scope, that is tosay, what information will be collected for whom it will be collected, how often or at what periodically it will be collected and so on. If the object and the scope of enqiry are not clearlydetermined before hand, difficulties may arise at the time of collection which will be simply a wastageof time and money.
Statistical Units :
The unit of measurement applied to the data in any particular problem is the statistical unit.Physical units of the measurement like quintal, kilogramme, metre, hour and year, etc. do not need anyexplanation or definition. But in some cases statistician has to give some proper definition regardingthe unit. For
the wholesale price of commodity. Now what does the form ‘wholesale price’signify? Does it stand for the price at which the producer sells the goods concrened to the stockist, or the price at which the stockist sells to a wholesaler? Is it the price at which the market opened at theday of enquiry? Many such problems may arise as stated. It is thus essential that a statistician shoulddefine the units of data before he starts the work of collection.
Types of Methods of Collection of Data :
Statistical data are usually of two types :(i) Primary, (ii) SecondaryData which are collected for the first time, for a specific purpose are known as
whilethose used in an investigation, which have been originally collected by some one else, are known as
data relating to national income collected by government are primary data, but the samedata will be secondary while those will be used by a different concern.
Let us take another example, known to everyone. In our country after every ten yearscounting of population is done, which is commonly known as Census. For this data are collected by theGovernment of India. The data collected are known as primary data. Now in the data, except populationinformation about age of persons, education, income etc. are available. Now a separate