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Statistics

Statistics

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Published by Deepak Ehn
ICWA_FOUNDATION_Maths&statistics
ICWA_FOUNDATION_Maths&statistics

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Published by: Deepak Ehn on May 28, 2011
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11/10/2013

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MATHS6.01
STUDY NOTE –6
DATA
6.1 DATA :
A statistician begins the work with the collection of data i.e. numerical facts. The data so collected arecalled
raw materials
(or 
raw data
). It is from these raw materials, a statistician analysis after proper classification and tabulation, for the final decision or conclusion. Therefore it is undoubtedlyimportant that the raw data collected should be clear, accurate and reliable.Before the collection of data, every enquiry must have a definite object and certain scope, that is tosay, what information will be collected for whom it will be collected, how often or at what periodically it will be collected and so on. If the object and the scope of enqiry are not clearlydetermined before hand, difficulties may arise at the time of collection which will be simply a wastageof time and money.
Statistical Units :
The unit of measurement applied to the data in any particular problem is the statistical unit.Physical units of the measurement like quintal, kilogramme, metre, hour and year, etc. do not need anyexplanation or definition. But in some cases statistician has to give some proper definition regardingthe unit. For 
examples,
the wholesale price of commodity. Now what does the form ‘wholesale price’signify? Does it stand for the price at which the producer sells the goods concrened to the stockist, or the price at which the stockist sells to a wholesaler? Is it the price at which the market opened at theday of enquiry? Many such problems may arise as stated. It is thus essential that a statistician shoulddefine the units of data before he starts the work of collection.
Types of Methods of Collection of Data :
Statistical data are usually of two types :(i) Primary, (ii) SecondaryData which are collected for the first time, for a specific purpose are known as
 primary data,
whilethose used in an investigation, which have been originally collected by some one else, are known as
  secondary data.
For 
example,
data relating to national income collected by government are primary data, but the samedata will be secondary while those will be used by a different concern.
1.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1
 
Let us take another example, known to everyone. In our country after every ten yearscounting of population is done, which is commonly known as Census. For this data are collected by theGovernment of India. The data collected are known as primary data. Now in the data, except populationinformation about age of persons, education, income etc. are available. Now a separate
 
Let us take another example, known to everyone. In our country after every ten years counting of  population is done, which is commonly known as Census. For this data are collected by the Governmentof India. The data collected are known as primary data. Now in the data, except population informationabout age of persons, education, income etc. are available. Now a separate
 
MATHS6.02
department of the government or any other private concern use these related data for any purpose, thenthe data will be known as secondary data to them.Data are primary to the collector, but secondary to the user.
Example.
 For primary data
:(i) Reserve Bank of India Bulletin (monthly)(ii) Jute Bulletin (monthly), (published by Govt. of India).(iii) ndian Textile Bulletin (monthly).(vi) Statement of Railway Board (yearly), (published by Ministry of Railway, Govt. of India).
 For secondary data
:(i) Statistical Abstract of the Indian Union(ii) Monthly Abstract of Statictics.(iii) Monthly Statistical Digest.(iv) International Labour Bulletin (monthly).
Distinction between Primary and secondary Data :.
Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time and thus original in character.Secondary data are those data that have already been collected earlier by some other persons.
.
Primary data are in the form of raw materials to which statistical methods are applied for them purpose of analysis. On the other hand, secondary data are in form of finished products as theyhave been already statistically applied.
.
Primary data are collected directly from the people to which enquiry is related. Secondary data arecollected from published materials.
.
f observed closely the difference is one of degree only. Data are primary to an institution collectingit, while they secondary for all others. Thus data which are primary in the hands of one, aresecondary in the hands of other.
Primary Method :
The following methods are common in use :(i) Direct Personal Observation : Under this method, the investigator collects the data personally. He has to go to the spot for conducting enquiry has to meet the personsconcerned. It is essential that the investigator should be polite, tactful and have a sense of observation.This method is applicable when the field of enquiry is small and there is an intention of greater accuracy. This method however, gives satisfactory result provided the investigator is fully dependable.
1.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1
 
(ii) Indirect Oral Investigation :
 
In this method data are collected throughindirect sources. Persons having some knowledge regarding the enquiry are cross-examined and the desired
 
Indirect Oral Investigation :
 
In this method data are collected through indirect sourcesPersons. having some knowledge regarding the enquiry are cross-examined and the desired
(ii)
 
MATHS6.03
information is collected. Evidence of one person should bot be relied, but a number of views should betaken to find out real position. This method is usually adopted by enquiry committees or commissions appointed by governments or semi- government or private institutions.Certain precautions are to be taken here. Firstly it should be seen whether the informantknows full facts of the problem under investigations. Secondly it should be considered thatthe person questioned is not prejudiced and also not motivated to colour the facts. Of cource, due allowance should be made for optimism and pessimism.(iii) Schedules and Questionnaires : A list of questions regarding the enquiry is prepared and printed. Data are collected in any of the following ways :(a)
By sending the questionnaire to the persons concerned with a request to answer thequestions and return the questionnaire.
 Success in this method depends entirely on the co-operation of the informants. Theadvantage in this method is that it is less costly, as no enumerators are required andinvestigations can be completed within a short time.The disadvantages are – many individuals do not return the forms in time and someof the individuals make mistake in filling up the forms.(b)
 
 By sending the questionnaire through enumerators for helping the informants.
 In this method, enumerators go to the informants to help them in filling the answers.This method is useful for extensive enquiries. It is expensive.
 Population census
isconducted by this method. It is essential enumerators should be polite, and have proper training. The implications and scope of each question, to be asked to theinformants, should be explained clearly to the enumerators. They should beinstructed how to check up apparently wrong replies. They should have intelligenceand capacity to cross examine the informants for finding out the true result.(iv)
Local Reports
: This method does not imply a formal collection of data. Only local agentsor correspondents are requested to supply the estimate required. This method gives onlyapproximate results, of course at a low cost.
Questionaires :
In a statistical enquiry, the necessary information is generally collected in a printed sheet in the formof a questionnaire. This sheet contains a set of questions which the investigator asks to the informant,and the answers are noted down against the respective questions on the sheet. Choice of questions is aa very important part of the enquiry whatever be its nature.For satisfactory investigation a questionnaire should possess the following points :
1.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1
 
(i) The scheduling of questions must not be lengthy. Many questions mayarise during preparations of questionnaire. If all of them are included, the result is that the persons who
 
(i) The scheduling of questions must not be lengthy. Many questions may arise during pre- parations of questionnaire. If all of them are included, the result is that the persons who
information is collected. Evidence of one person should bot be relied, but a number of views should be taken to find out real position. This method is usually adopted byenquiry committees or commissions appointed by governments or semi- governmentor private institutions. Certain precautions are to be taken here. Firstly it should be seenwhether the informant knows full facts of the problem under investigations. Secondly itshould be considered that the person questioned is not prejudiced and also not motivatedto colour the facts. Of cource, due allowance should be made for optimism and pessimism.

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