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Ecological Study of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.)

Ecological Study of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.)

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Published by Khilendra Gurung
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.), or Dalechuk, as known at local level, is a multipurpose plant species of high Himalayan habitat. There are two species of Seabuckthorn viz Hippophae salicifolia D. Don and Hippophae tibetana Schlecht., found frequently in the high Himalaya. They are known to bear root nodules and fix nitrogen. Similar to H. tibetana in habit but with more prostrate structure, lower plant population, and distribution largely limited to southerly exposed riversides was also found (H. rhamnoides L.?). In this study, they are included under H. tibetana.
Based on quadratic measurements ecological studies on Seabuckthorn were carried out in Mustang and Manang districts. Range of distribution, density, and frequency of associated species were also recorded. Composite sampling of soil was also done and the samples were analyzed for major nutrients (NPK). Comparison between NPK content and organic matter were studied for the habitats with and without Seabuckthorn.
Seabuckthorn (Hippophae L.), or Dalechuk, as known at local level, is a multipurpose plant species of high Himalayan habitat. There are two species of Seabuckthorn viz Hippophae salicifolia D. Don and Hippophae tibetana Schlecht., found frequently in the high Himalaya. They are known to bear root nodules and fix nitrogen. Similar to H. tibetana in habit but with more prostrate structure, lower plant population, and distribution largely limited to southerly exposed riversides was also found (H. rhamnoides L.?). In this study, they are included under H. tibetana.
Based on quadratic measurements ecological studies on Seabuckthorn were carried out in Mustang and Manang districts. Range of distribution, density, and frequency of associated species were also recorded. Composite sampling of soil was also done and the samples were analyzed for major nutrients (NPK). Comparison between NPK content and organic matter were studied for the habitats with and without Seabuckthorn.

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Published by: Khilendra Gurung on Sep 09, 2008
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05/09/2014

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Ecological Study of Seabuckthorn (
 Hippophae
L.) in Mustang andManang Districts, Nepal
Khilendra Gurung and Vimal N P GuptaCentral Department of Botany, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
Abstract
Seabuckthorn (
Hippophae
L.), or Dalechuk
 ,
as known at local level, is a multipurpose plantspecies of high Himalayan habitat. There are two species of Seabuckthorn viz
Hippophae salicifolia
D. Don and
Hippophae tibetana
Schlecht., found frequently in the high Himalaya. They are knownto bear root nodules and fix nitrogen. Similar to
H. tibetana
in habit but with more prostratestructure, lower plant population, and distribution largely limited to southerly exposedriversides was also found (
H. rhamnoides
L.
?).
In this study, they are included under
H. tibetana.
Based on quadratic measurements ecological studies on Seabuckthorn were carried out inMustang and Manang districts. Range of distribution, density, and frequency of associatedspecies were also recorded. Composite sampling of soil was also done and the samples wereanalyzed for major nutrients (NPK). Comparison between NPK content and organic matter werestudied for the habitats with and without Seabuckthorn.Results showed that
H. salicifolia
occurred between 2,000 m to 2,800 m in Mustang and 2,100 m to3,600 m in Manang. Associated species of plants were
Pinus wallichiana
 ,
Salix
sp.,
 Arundinaria falcata
 , and
Berberis
 
aristata
.
H. tibetana
occurred in relatively drier habitats with elevations between 2,900 m to 3,950 m in Mustang, while in Manang the range appeared to be pushedabove i.e. between 3,300 m to 4,200 m. As usual to the high altitude central Himalayan habitats,the associated species were found to be
Berberis erythroclada
 ,
Caragana brevispina
 ,
Lonicera spinosa
 ,
Rosa sericea
and
 Juniperus indica
.Organic matter content varied as 0.1 to 5.03, Nitrogen content-ranged from 0.012% to 0.941%,Phosphorus from 12.15 kg/ha to 170.77 kg/ha and Potassium from 127 kg/ha to 778 kg/ha. Ingeneral, soil analysis indicates that nutrient contents in Seabuckthorn available sites were morethan that of barren mountain lands. They are nitrogen-fixing plants and therefore, consideredpotential for soil fertility improvement.
Introduction
Seabuckthorn (
Hippophae
L.), locally known as Dalechuk is native to mountain region ofNepal. It is a multipurpose plant species suited for soil conservation and well known forits nutritional and medicinal values. National Herbarium and Plant Laboratory, PlantResearch Division; Nepal at Godawari has specimens of three species of
Hippophae,
namely
Hippophae
 
salicifolia
D.Don,
Hippophae
 
tibetana
Schlecht. and
Hippophaerhamnoides
L. However, only two species of
Hippophae
viz,
Hippophae
 
salicifolia
and
Hippophae
 
tibetana
are identified in the high mountain areas of Nepal (Rongsen, 1992;Shrestha, 1999 and Gupta
et al
., 2001).The plant has a very strong tap and horizontal root system. A symbiotic association has been found on roots of Seabuckthorn resulting root nodule formation. Soil requirementof Seabuckthorn is sandy and silt loam with good drainage (Rongsen, 1992). Characterssuch as wide ecological adaptation, fast growth, strong coppicing and suckering habitscoupled with efficient Nitrogen fixation (60-180 kg/ha per year) make Seabuckthornwell suited for soil conservation, soil improvement and marginal land reclamation(Rongsen, 1992; Khosla
et al
., 1994).
1
 
Though Seabuckthorn is a multipurpose plant species, it is one of the least known andunexplored species in Nepal. Thus, this work attempts to study the ecology and rangeof distribution of Seabuckthorn in Manang and Mustang districts of Nepal.
Materials And MethodsStudy Area
The study area extends from Ghansa to Thengar, lying between 28
0
36’ 77”–29
0
15’ 2” Nlatitude and 83
0
35’ 701” – 83
0
58’ 45” E longitude in Mustang district. Similarly, inManang district, the study area extends from Tache, Dharapani to Lattar, lying between28
0
31’ 52”– 28
0
44’ 17” N latitude and 83
0
54’ 23”–84
0
28’ 28” E longitude.
Analytical Study
Quadratic studies of Seabuckthorn were done based on well-established methods(Kershaw, 1973). Requisite size of the quadrat was determined by species area curvemethod (Barbour
et al.,
1980). Appropriate size of the quadrat for the study of
Hippophae
 
salicifolia
was 400 m
2
(20 m x 20 m) and
Hippophae
 
tibetana
was 25 m
2
(5 m x 5m). Plant specimens were identified with the help of National Herbarium and PlantLaboratory, Plant Research Division, Godawari (KATH).
Density
Density is calculated by using the following formula according to Zobel
et al.
(1987)
000,10)(mquadratsof Areaxsampledquadratsof number Total A"species"of sindividualof number Total )/(
2
xha pt  Density
=
Frequency
Frequency is calculated as follows according to Zobel
et al.
(1987)
100 sampled plotsof number Total occuredA"species"in which plotsof number Total )(
x F  Frequency
=
Soil AnalysisSampling Technique
About 1kg of soil was collected from Seabuckthorn growing areas and from the barrenlands from the depth of 10 cm and collected samples were packed in a clean polythene bags tightly. NPK and Organic matter content were analyzed in NARC, Khumaltar.
Soil Organic Matter (SOM)
The percentage of organic matter was analyzed by Walkley-Black method andcalculated by using formula according to PCARR (1980).
O.M. (%) =
 soil of  Weight  x x
1000069.0)(10
Where,
S = ml of ferrous solution required for blankT = ml of ferrous solution required for sample
2
 
Nitrogen (N)
The organic Nitrogen in the form of ammonium was analyzed by using modifiedKjeldahl method (PCARR, 1980).
Percentage N in soil =
10014)(
 x x N  x B
Where,
T = Sample titration, ml of standard acidB = Blank titration, ml of standard acidN = Normality of standard acidS = Oven-dry weight of sample in mg
Available Phosphorus (P
2
O
5
)
It was measured using modified Troug's Method (Ayres-Hagihara). Spectrophotometerwas used in this method (PCARR, 1980).Phosphorus (P) kg /ha. = F x RWhere,
F = Coefficient factor from blank solutionR = Reading in Spectrophotometer
Exchangeable Potassium (K
2
O)
It was tested by using flame Photometer method (PCARR, 1980).Potassium (K) kg/ha = F x RWhere,
F = Dilution factorR = Reading in Photometer
ResultsRange of Distribution
Hippophae salicifolia
occurred naturally between 2000m- 2800m, from Ghansa to Yamkinkhola in Mustang. The luxuriant growth of
H. tibetana
was recorded between 3450m-3950m from Jhongkhola to Thengar in Mustang.In Manang,
Hippophae salicifolia
were observed at the altitudes between 2100m- 3660mfrom Tache and Dharapani to Tijilon. Similarly,
H.
 
tibetana
were recorded in between thealtitude of 3300m - 4200m from Pisang to Lattar.
Density of Seabuckthorn
The density of species,
H.
 
salicifolia
and
H.
 
tibetana
were calculated as given in figures (1,2, 3 and 4).
3

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