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Table Of Contents

Introduction
About this Manual
System Requirements
Turbo Basic
Back to Basics -Machine Language
Interpreters
Compilers
Line Numbers and Turbo Basic
Backing Up Your Disks
Files on the Distribution Disk
Installation
Setting Up an Operating Environrnent
Starting Up Turbo Basic
Editor Suroival Kit
Basic Operations
Block Operations
Search and Replace
A First Program
Options
Compiling
Running the Program
Saving to Disk
Saving the Executable Program
Executing MYFIRST from DOS
Tracing Your Program
The System Windows
The Turbo Editor
Operating the Editor
Basic Movement Commaruls
Extended Movement Commaruls
Imert and Delete Commands
Block Commands
Miscellaneous Editing Commands
The Editor Versus WordStar
The Compiler
The File Command
The Edit Command
The Run Command
The Compile Command
The Options Command
The Setup Command
The Debug Command
Thrbo Basic Character Set
Reseroed Words
Numbers in Turbo·Basic
Integers
Umg Integers
Calculation and the 8087
Constants
String Constants
Numeric Constants
Identifying Integer Constants in Other Bases
Named Constants
Variables
Arrays
Subscripts
String Arrays
Multidimensional Arrays
Array Bounds Testing
Array Storage Requirements
Dynamic Allocation
Declaring Static or Dynamic Arrays
Expressions
Operators
Arithmetic Operators
Relational Operators
Logical Operators
Bit Manipulations
Strings and Relational Operators
Subroutines, Functions, and Procedures
Functions
Formal Versus Actual Parameters
Function Types
Procedures
Passing Arrays to Procedures
Procedure and Function Definitions and Program Flow
Argument Checking
Advanced Topics in Functions and Procedures
Passing Parameters by Value or Reference
Sequential Files
Field-Delimited Sequential Files
Nondelimited Sequential Files
The Text Modes
Typography
$COM metastatement
$DYNAMIC metastatement
$EVENT metastatement
$IF/$ELSE/$ENDIFmetastatements
$INCLUDE metastatement
$INLINE metastatement
$SEGMENT metastatement
$SOUND metastatement
$STACK metastatement
$STATIC metastatement
ABS functian
ASC function
ATN function
BEEP statement
BIN$ function
BLOAD statement
BSAVE statement
CALL statement
CALL ABSOLUTE statement
CALL INTERRUPT statement
CDBLfunction
CEIL function
CHAIN statement
CHDIR statement
CHR$ function
CINT function
CIRCLE statement
CLEAR statement
CING function
CLOSE statement
COLOR statement (graphics mode)
COLOR statement (text nwde)
CVI, CVL, CVS, CVD functions
CVMD, CVMS functions
DATA statement
DATE$ system variable
DEeR statement
DEF FN/END DEF statement
DEF SEC statement
DELAY statement
DIM statement
DO/LOOP statement
END statement
ENDMEM function
ENVIRON statement
ENVIRON$ function
EOF function
ERASE statement
ERDEV, ERDEV$functions
ERL, ERR/unctions
ERROR statement
EXIT statement
FIELD statement
FILES statement
FIX function
FOR/NEXT statements
FRE function
GET statement (fiks)
GET statement (graphics)
GET$ function
GOSUB statement
GOTO statement
HEX$ function
IF statement
INCR statement
INKEY$ function
INP function
INPUT statement
INPUT # statement
INPUT$ functian
INSTRfunction
INT function
JOCTL statement, IOCTL$ function
KEY statement
KEY(n) statement
KILL statement
·LBOUND function
LCASE$ function
LEFT$ function
LEN function
LET statement
LINE statement
UNE INPUT statement
LINE INPUT # statement
LOC function
LOCAL statement
LOF function
LOG, LOG2, and LOGIO functions
LPOS function
LSET statement
MEMSET statement
MID$ function
MID$ statement
MKDIR statement
MKI$, MKL$, MKS$, MKD$ functi(J118
MKMD$, MKMS$ functions
MTIMERfunction and statement
NAME statement
OCT$ function
ON COM(n) statement
ON ERROR statement
ON/GOSUB statement
ON/GOTO statement
ON KEY(n) statement
ON PEN statement
ON PLAY statement
ON STRIG statement
ON TIMER statement
OPEN statement
OPEN COM statement
OPTION BASE statement
OUT statement
PAINT statement
PALETTE, PALETTE USING statements
PEEK function
PEN functioo
PEN statement
PLAY function
PLAY statement
POINT functian
POKE statement
PRESET statement
PRINT statement
PRINT # and PRINT # USING statements
PRINT USING statement
PSET statement
PUT statement (files)
PUT statement (graphics)
PUT$ function
RANDOMIZE statement
READ statement
REG function and statement
REM statement
RESET 'statement
RESTORE statement
RESUME statement
RETURN statement
RIGHT$ function
RMDIR statement
RND function
RSET statement
RUN statement
SCREEN function
SCREEN statement
SEEK statement
SELECT statement
· SGN function
SHARED statement
SHELL statement
SIN function
SOUND statement
SPACE$ function
SPC functian
STATIC statement
STOP statement
STR$ function
STRIG function
STRIG statement
STRING$ function
SUB/END SUB, SUB INLINE statements,
SWAP statement
SYSTEM statement
TAB function
TAN function
TIME$ system variable
TIMER function
TIMER statement
UBOUND function
UCASE$ function
VAL function
VARPTR$ function
VARSEG function
VIEW statement
WAlT statement
WHILE/WEND statements
WIDTH statement
lVINDOW statement
WRITE statement
WRITE # statement
Random Files with Floating-Point Data
Internal Representation of the Four Numeric Types
Computers and the Real Number System
Overflow and Underflow
Single-Precision Floating Point
Double-Precision Floating Point
An Example
Fine-Tuning Event Trapping
The CALL ABSOLUTE Statement
The CALL INTERRUPT Statement
The Register Buffer
About DOS and BIOS Function Calls
Using CALL 'With INLINE
Passing Parameters to INLINE Procedures
Passing Numeric Variables
Passing Strings
Passing Arrays
Passing Expression Results
Creating an INLINE.COMfile
Using DEBUG to create a . COM file
Using a Macroassembler to create a . COM file
INLINE Assembly Example
1. The Compiler versus the Interpreter
The Compiler Versus the Interpreter
Unsupported Commands
Statements Requiring Modification
Converting Interpretive BASIC Programs to Turbo Basic
Extensions to tire BASIC Language
Structured Statements
Function and Procedure Definitions
Assembly Language Interface
Built-in Functions
New Commands
Compiler Implementation
The Editor and Large Programs
Random Files with Floating-Point Values
Running in a Window
Intermediate Floating-Point, Precision
Strings
Improved Memory Use
PEEK and POKE Locations
Run-time Errors
Compiler Errors
Extended Key Codes
Keyboard Scan Codes
What Is DOS?
How to Load a Program
Directories
Subdirectories
"Where Am If The $p $g Prompt
Changing Directories
Setting Up an Operating Environment
Chaining
Compiler Data
Devices
Error Handling
Graphics
Hardware Events
Input
Keyboard Handling
Memory Management
Metastatements
Miscellaneous
Numeric
Output
Printer
Screen
Sound
String Operations
Running TBINST
The Turbo Basic Directory· Option
The Editor Command Option
The Default Edit MoCk Option
The Screen MoCk Option
Default Display MoCk
Color Display Mode
Black and White Display Mode
Monochrome Display Mode
Quitting the Program
Index
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Borland Turbo BASIC Owners Handbook 1987

Borland Turbo BASIC Owners Handbook 1987

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Published by: bongskij on May 29, 2011
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