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Table Of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
A. Scope of This Book
B. The Intended Audience
C. What Mediaeval Logic Is Not
E. Translations
A. The Early Ancient Period
B. Aristotelian Logic
1. Important Characteristics of Aristotelian Logic
a. Kinds of Categorical Propositions
iii. Syllogistic Moods and the Theory of Reduction
3. Last Words About Aristotle and a Few About Theophrastus
C. Stoic Logic
1. General Characteristics of Stoic Logic
2. Particular Doctrines
D. Late Antiquity
E. Boethius
F. The Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries
G. The Sophistic Refutations
H. The Thirteenth Century
I. The Fourteenth Century and Thereafter
J. Additional Reading
Chapter 3: The Threefold Division of Language
A. Some Remarks on John Buridan
1. Buridan’s Writings
B. The Quaestio-Form
C. What Is A “Sophism”?
D. The Relation of Writing to Speech
E. What Is “Signification”?
F. Three “Levels” of Language
G. Variations of Terminology
H. More about Relations R1 through R6
I. The Primitive Relations
J. The Sources of the Doctrine
K. Natural vs. Conventional Signification
L. Subordination
M. Evaluation and Comparison of These Views
1. The Position of Written Language
2. The Position of Spoken Language
a. The Transitivity of Signification
3. More on the Position of Spoken Language
4. Unanswered Questions
N. Postscript
O. Additional Reading
Chapter 4: Mental Language
A. Major Contributors to the Theory
B. The Conventionality of Spoken and Written Language
1. Robert Fland’s Extreme View
2. William Heytesbury’s Odd Restriction
C. Natural Signification
E. Synonymy and Equivocation in Mental Language
1. Mental Language and Fregean Senses
F. The Ingredients of Mental Language
G. Common and Proper Grammatical Accidents
1. Geach’s Criticisms of Ockham’s Theory
H. The Structure of Mental Propositions
1. Proper and Improper Mental Language
2. The Problem of Word-Order in Proper Mental Language
d. A Way Out of the Word-Order Argument
3. The Problem of the Unity of Proper Mental Propositions
a. Reply to This Problem
I. Summary of the Two Preceding Problems
Chapter 5: The Signification of Terms
A. A Dispute Between Ockham and Burley
1. Ockham’s Theory
D. Burley’s Arguments Against Ockham
1. First Argument
2. Another Objection
i. Concepts as Natural Likenesses
ii. Ockham’s Two Main Theories of Concepts
b. Concluding Remarks on This Objection
3. Still Other Objections
E. Epistemological Factors in the Dispute
F. Additional Reading
Chapter 6: The Signification of Propositions
A. The Additive Principle
B. Complexe significabilia
1. Authoritative Sources for the Theory
2. Arguments for the Theory
3. Terminological Variations
4. The Ontological Status of Complexe significabilia
b. Gregory of Rimini’s Three Kinds of Beings
F. Adverbial Signification as the Basis for A Theory of Truth
G. Direct and Consecutive Signification
1. Some Implications of This Distinction
H. Additional Reading
Chapter 7: Connotation-Theory
A. The Theory of Paronymy
1. Augustine
2. Anselm
b. Anselm’s Semantics of Paronymy
B. Connotation-Theory in Ockham
1. Ockham’s Theory of Definition
i. Expressions Expressing the Quid Nominis
c. A List of Connotative Terms
2. The Secondary Significates of Connotative Terms
3. A Generalization and Some Conclusions
C. Connotation in Mental Language
1. Why Ockham Cannot Have Simple Connotative Concepts
2. Why Buridan Cannot Have Them
3. Conceptual Atomism
Figure 13: Simple and Complex vs. Absolute and Connotative
4. Epistemological Factors
5. An Interpretative Tangle
a. Claude Panaccio’s Interpretation
b. Martin Tweedale’s Interpretation
c. Suggestions and Conjectures
D. Additional Reading
Chapter 8: Supposition — The Theory of Reference
A. The Difference Between Supposition and Signification
1. The First Main Difference
2. The Second Main Difference
B. The Kinds of Supposition
1. Proper and Improper Supposition
2. The Divisions of Proper Supposition
v. Mistaken Interpretations of Ockham’s Division
b. Burley’s and Other Authors’ Divisions
c. Subdivisions of Simple Supposition
ii. The “Rule of Supposition”
C. Additional Reading
D. Supplement: Diagrams of the Divisions of Supposition Proper
Chapter 9: The Ups and Downs of Personal Supposition
A. The Branches of Personal Supposition
1. Syntactical Rules
2. Descent and Ascent
b. Confused and Distributive Supposition
Figure 19: Personal Supposition in Categorical Propositions
c. Merely Confused Supposition
i. Objections to This Interpretation
ii. Suggested Answers to These Objections
c. Facts of Mediaeval Usage
d. A Partial Logic of Complex Terms
i. First Important Result
ii. Second Important Result
iii. Consequences of the First Two Results
iv. Third Important Result
B. Additional Reading
Chapter 10: Ampliation
A. Modality
1. Assertoric vs. Modal Propositions
2. Two Syntactical Constructions for Modal Propositions
C. Tense
D. Some Conclusions
1. An Inconsistent Triad
E. Additional Reading
Appendix 1: Chronological Table of Names
Appendix 2: A Collection of Texts
Bibliography
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Thoughts, Words and Things1_2

Thoughts, Words and Things1_2

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