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Table Of Contents

Designing a database
Example Database Design
Entity-Relationship Model
E-R Model: What it is
Entity Sets and Attributes
Types of Attributes
Relationship Sets
Constraints
Cardinality Constraints / Mapping Cardinalities / Cardinality Ratios
Participation Constraints
Cardinality Limits
Weak Entity Sets
Discriminator / Partial Key of a Weak Entity Set
How the primary key of a weak entity set is formed
Placement of descriptive attributes in a weak entity set
Participation of weak entity sets in relationships
Weak entity sets – should they be designed as multivalued attributes?
Specialization and Generalization
Specialization
Generalization
Reduction of E-R Schemas to Tables
Strong Entity Sets
One-to-One Relationship
One-to-Many Relationship
Many-to-One Relationship
Many-to-Many Relationship
Composite Attributes
Multivalued Attributes
E-R Diagram Symbols at a Glance
DML: Data-Manipulation Language
DML (Data-Manipulation Language): What it is
Query Language
The SELECT Operation / Statement
Relational Algebra
Fundamental Relational Algebra Operations
The Selection Operation
The Projection Operation
Composition of the Relational Operations
The Union Operation
The Set-Difference Operation
The Cartesian-Product Operation
The Rename Operation
Additional Relational Algebra Operations
The Set-intersection Operation
The Natural Join Operation
Extended Relational Algebra Operations
The Outer Join Operation
Generalized Projection
Aggregate Functions
Modification of Database
Insertion
Deletion
Update
Indexing and Hashing
The Problem
Basic Concepts
Types of Indices
Index Technique Choosing Factors
Ordered Indices
Primary / Clustering Index
Secondary / Non-Clustering Index
Index-Sequential Files
Contents of an index record / entry
Types of ordered indices
Dense Index
Dense index for primary indices
Another implementation of dense indices
Sparse Index
Comparative Analysis of Dense and Sparse Index
A good trade-off
Why this trade-off is good
Multi-Level Indices
The problem with single-level indices
Solution to this problem
Secondary Indices
Tree Index
The Problem with Indexed-Sequential File Organization
Tree Index Solves the Problem
Tree File Organization
B-Tree Index
Advantages of B-Tree
Disdvantages of B-Tree
Hashing
The Problem with Sequential File Organization and How Hashing Solves It
Hash File Organization
Manipulation of Records in Hash Files
Hash Functions
Distribution Qualities for Choosing a Hash Function
Some Examples Illustrating These Qualities
How Hash Functions Should be Designed
Handling of Bucket Overflows
Causes of bucket overflows
Reducing bucket overflows
Handling bucket overflows
Hash Indices
Static and Dynamic Hashing
Drawbacks of Hashing
Comparison of Ordered Indexing and Hashing
Multiple-Key Indices
Problem with Multiple Single-Key Indices
Advantages of Using Multiple-Key Indices
Index Definitions in SQL
Creating an Index
Removing an Index
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DBMS - An Interactive Tutorial (B&W)

DBMS - An Interactive Tutorial (B&W)

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Published by Saurabh Sharma

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Published by: Saurabh Sharma on May 31, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/13/2013

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