•A plant’s structure reflects interactions with theenvironment of two time scales.
– Over the long term, entire plant species have, bynatural selection, accumulated morphologicaladaptations that enhance survival and reproductivesuccess.
•For example, some desert plants have so reduced their leaves that the stem is actually the primary photosyntheticorgan.•This is a morphological adaptation that reduces water loss.
1. Both genes and environmentaffect plant structure
2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings