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Table Of Contents

1.1.3 Earth’s Atmosphere
1.2 Measurement of Solar Radiation on Earth’s Surface
1.2.3 Sunshine Recorder
1.3.1 Zenith Angle (hz)
1.3.2 Solar Altitude (a)
1.3.3 Solar Azimuth Angle (cSun)
1.3.4 Wall Azimuth Angle (cwall)
1.3.5 Solar Declination (d)
1.3.6 Latitude (/) and Longitude (Lt)
1.4 Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface
1.5 Solar Radiation on an Inclined Surface
Problems
References
2.2 History of PV/T Air Heating
2.2.1 PV Integrated with Air Collector
2.2.2 Ventilated BIPV System
2.3 History of PV/T Water Heating
2.5 Artificial Intelligence Techniques for PV systems
2.5.1 Artificial Neural Networks
2.5.2 Fuzzy Logic
2.5.3 Genetic Algorithm
2.5.4 Wavelet
2.5.5 Hybrid Systems
2.6 Market Potential of PV/T Systems
Solar Cell Materials and Their Characteristics
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 First Generation
3.1.2 Second Generation
3.1.3 Third Generation
3.2 Doping
3.3 Fermi Level
3.4 p-n Junction
3.4.1 Forward Bias
3.4.2 Reverse Bias
3.5 p-n Junction Characteristics
3.6 Photovoltaic Effect
3.7 Photovoltaic Material
3.7.1 Silicon
3.7.2 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)
3.7.3 Copper-Indium Selenide (CuInSe2)
3.7.4 Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Multijunction
3.7.5 Single Crystal Solar Cell
3.7.6 Light-absorbing Dyes
3.7.7 Organic/Polymer Solar Cells
3.7.8 Nanocrystalline Solar Cells
3.7.9 Low-cost Solar Cells
3.8 Basic Parameters of Solar Cells
3.8.1 Overall Current (I)
3.8.2 Short Circuit Current (Isc)
3.8.3 Open Circuit Voltage (Voc)
3.8.4 I V Characteristics
3.8.5 Fill Factor (FF)
3.8.6 Maximum Power (Pmax)
3.8.7 Solar Cell Efficiency (gec)
3.8.8 Limits to Cell Efficiency
3.8.9 Determination of Rs
3.8.10 Determination of Rp
3.8.11 Thin-film Solar Cell
3.8.12 Amorphous Si Solar Cells (a-SiH)
3.8.13 Tandem Solar Cells
3.8.14 Concentrating Solar Cells
3.9 Effect of Cell Temperature on Cell Efficiency
3.10 Current Research on Materials and Devices
3.10.1 Silicon Processing
3.10.2 Thin-film Processing
3.10.3 Polymer Processing
3.10.4 Nanoparticle Processing
3.10.5 Transparent Conductors
3.10.6 Silicon Wafer-based Solar Cells
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Photovoltaic (PV) Module and Array
4.2.1 Theory and Construction
4.2.2 Single Crystal Solar Cells Module
4.2.3 Packing Factor (bc) of a PV Module
4.2.4 Efficiency of a PV/T Module
4.2.5 Applications
4.2.6 PV Performance
4.2.7 Solar Photovoltaic Panels on Spacecraft
4.3 Series and Parallel Combinations
4.4 Balance of PV Array
4.5 Partial Shading of Solar Cell and Module
4.6 Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT)
4.7 International Status of PV Power Generation
Role of Batteries and Their Uses
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Fundamental Principles
5.2.1 Electro-chemical Action
5.3 Physical Construction
5.3.1 Voltage
5.3.2 Specific Gravity
5.3.3 Specific Gravity Corrections
5.3.4 Capacity
5.4 Discharge Characteristics
5.5 Charging Characteristics
5.6 Selection of PV Battery
5.6.3 Battery Protection and Regulating Circuits
5.6.4 Battery Simulation and Sizing
5.7 Battery Lifetime in a PV System12
5.8 Charging State of PV-powered Storage Batteries14
5.9 General Terms
5.9.1 Efficiency
5.9.2 Local Action
5.9.3 Gassing
5.9.4 Mossing
5.9.5 Sediment
5.9.6 Temperature
5.9.7 Internal Resistance
5.9.8 Testing
5.9.9 Dry-charged Batteries
5.9.10 Maintenance
5.9.11 Lead-Calcium Cell
6.1 Introduction
6.4.1 Energy and Emission Savings
7.1 Introduction
7.2 PV/T Air Collectors
7.2.1 Hybrid Air Collector
7.2.2 Double-pass PV/T Solar Air Collector
7.2.5 Testing of the Solar Air Collector
7.3 PV/T Solar Water Heater
7.3.1 Integration of a PV Module on a Collector
7.3.2 Overall Thermal and Electrical Efficiency
7.3.3 Hybrid PV/T Water-heating System
7.3.4 Collectors Connected in Series
7.4.1 Active PV/T Distillation System
7.5 PV/T Solar Dryers
7.5.1 Solar Tunnel Dryer
7.5.2 Solar Greenhouse Dryer
7.5.3 Conventional Solar Grain Dryer
7.5.4 Conventional PV/T Mixed Mode Dryer
7.6 Statistical Analysis
8.1 Energy Analysis
8.2 Energy Matrices
8.2.1 Energy Pay Back Time (EPBT)
8.2.2 Energy Production Factor (EPF)
8.2.3 Life Cycle Conversion Efficiency (LCCE)
8.3 Embodied Energy
8.3.1 Embodied Energy Analysis
8.3.2 Embodied Energy Density
8.4 Embodied Energy of PV Module (Glass-to-Glass)
8.5 Balance of System (BOS)
8.6.1 Hybrid PV/T Active Distillation System
8.6.2 PV/T Air Collector
8.6.3 Hybrid PV/T Solar Water Heater
8.6.5 Hybrid Conventional PV/T Solar Dryer
8.8 Exergy Analysis
8.9 Importance of Exergy
8.10 Exergy of a Process
8.10.1 Solar Radiation Exergy
8.10.2 Exergy of Stratified Thermal Energy Storages
8.10.3 Exergy Efficiency
8.11 Exergetic Analysis of Flat-plate Collector
Collector Exergy Efficiency
8.12 Exergetic Analysis of PV/T Systems
8.12.1 Active Distillation System
8.12.2 PV/T Water Heater
8.12.3 PV/T Solar Dryers
9.1 Introduction
9.2 CO2 Emissions
9.3 The Kyoto Protocol
9.3.1 Kyoto’s Flexible Mechanisms
9.3.2 Emission Allowances
9.3.3 Additionality and Its Importance
9.4 Emission Trading
9.5 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
9.5.1 CDM Projects
9.5.2 CDM as an Instrument of Technology Transfer
9.6 Carbon Credit Analysis
9.6.1 Solar Energy Park (SEP)
9.6.2 Solar PV/T Systems
9.7 Energy Pricing
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Cost Analysis
10.2.1 Capital Recovery Factor
10.2.2 Unacost
10.2.3 Sinking Fund Factor
10.3 Cash Flow
10.4 Cost Comparisons with Equal Duration
10.5 Cost Comparisons with Unequal Duration
10.5.1 Single Present Value Method
10.5.2 Cost Comparison by Annual Cost Method
10.5.3 Cost Comparison by Capitalized Cost
10.6 Analytical Expression for Payout Time
10.7 Net Present Value
10.8 Benefit-Cost Analysis
10.9 Internal Rate of Return
10.10 Effect of Depreciation
10.11 Cost Comparisons of Solar Dryers with Duration
APPENDIX I
APPENDIX II
APPENDIX III
APPENDIX IV
APPENDIX V
APPENDIX VI
Glossary
Subject Index
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Ebooksclub.org Fundamentals of Photo Voltaic Modules and Their Applications RSC Energy Series

Ebooksclub.org Fundamentals of Photo Voltaic Modules and Their Applications RSC Energy Series

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Published by Tony Roy

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Published by: Tony Roy on May 31, 2011
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