Study the passage and data below and then answer the questions that follow.
Grazing in the Serengeti grassland
The Serengeti is a huge area of tropical grassland in Tanzania. Herds of grazing mammals, suchas wildebeest, gazelle and zebra, roam freely. Every year, these herds migrate across theSerengeti, in search of fresh grassland. The grazing mammals affect the primary productivity of the grassland. Long-term research has found that the rate of primary production is linked toboth the rainfall and the numbers of grazing mammals.-
Figure 1Map of Africa showingthe location of the SerengetiFigure 2A wildebeast, one of the manytypes of grazing mammal foundin the Serengeti
Grazing can increase the growth rate of many grass species. This is called compensatorygrowth. The grazing mammals remove the upper parts of the grass leaves and this increases theamount of light reaching the rest of the plant. The smaller leaf area reduces transpiration andthis decreases the uptake of water by the roots. Researchers investigated compensatory growthof grasses in a region of the Serengeti. They fenced off several areas to prevent mammals fromgrazing the grass. During the annual migration, thousands of wildebeest moved into the studyregion where they grazed intensively for 4 days and then moved on. The researchers recordedthe changes in the fresh biomass of the grasses in the grazed and ungrazed areas over the next32 days (Figure 3). A further investigation studied the effect of grazing intensity on primaryproductivity (Figure 4).