Aswan High Dam impacts; fossil groundwaters in NorthAfrica
Professor Jim Simpson
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List of Figures:
Motivation for construction of Aswan High Dam.2.
Short-term impacts of Aswan High Dam construction.3.
Long-term impacts of Aswan High Dam construction.4.
Map of Lake Nasser.5.
(a)Zone of sediment deposition in Lake Nasser. (b) Volume of water storage in Lake Nasser (1968-1990).6.
Water demands per capita - I: drinking & domestic (NYC).7.
Water demands per capita - II: irrigation (Egypt).8.
Water demands per capita - III: summary of main use categories.9.
Land area required for per capita food production (Egypt).10.
Groundwaters in North Africa - fossil water from glacial period.
Irrigation water demand (Egypt) per unit of land - duration of fossil groundwater resourceif withdrawn for irrigation.
Long-term problems resulting from current surface water management practices, such asreservoir siltation, present major difficulties for future generations, but are generallyignored.2.
Irrigation demand for water is more than an order of magnitude greater than domestic usedemand in arid climates.3.
Fossil groundwaters in N Africa and elsewhere are being withdrawn to supply irrigationdemands in amounts far in excess of recharge rates.
OUTLINE OF SOME IMPACTS OF CONTROLS OF NILE RIVER DISCHARGE.
With rapid increase of population in Egypt and very limited supplies of water and agriculturalland, the pressure to manage river water to the maximum extent feasible is very strong. When apopulation is faced with the serious food-supply problems confronted by Egypt, and a number of other countries, it is not likely that long-term environmental issues will have high priority.However, those issues do not go away just because they are not currently factored into planningdecisions. Some of the positive reasons for construction of the High Dam at Aswan are quiteclear (Figure #1).