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Occupational Therapy Services for Persons With Visual Impairment

Occupational Therapy Services for Persons With Visual Impairment

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03/02/2012

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19.1 million Americans report experiencing vision impairment orblindness.
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It is one of the top 10 disabilities among adults over age 18.
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Aging is the single best predictor for experiencing visual impairment; mostpersons with visual impairment are over age 65.
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Older adults with visualimpairment are three to four times more likely than adults with normalvision to experience difculties completing activities of daily living (ADLs),such as preparing a meal, managing medications, and taking a walk.
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Occupational therapy focuses on reducing the impact of disabilityby promoting independence and participation in valued activities.Occupational therapy practitioners use the term
occupation
to representactivities that individuals need and/or want to do and that are meaningfulto them. The broad and comprehensive educational preparation of occupational therapy practitioners enables themto address multiple dimensions of disability, including physical, psychological, cognitive, and social, that preventchildren and adults from engaging in meaningful daily occupations. Practitioners work as members of a team of visionrehabilitation experts that may include optometrists, ophthalmologists, certied orientation and mobility specialists, visionrehabilitation therapists, certied low vision therapists, teachers of the visually impaired, and rehabilitation psychologistsand counselors.
What Is the Role of Occupational Therapy in Addressing Visual Impairment?
Older Adults
Occupational therapy practitioners work to ensure that older adults are able to age in place and participate in theircommunities despite visual impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners are also part of coordinated rehabilitationteams that enable working age adults with visual impairment to acquire or continue independent living and productiveemployment.As experts in activity analysis and environmental modication, occupational therapy practitioners determine how visionimpairment has limited the person’s ability to complete specic daily tasks. The practitioner then modies the taskand/or the environment to minimize or remove those limitations. For example, an occupational therapy practitionermight restructure a task to remove a vision-dependent step, such as programming a telephone to speed dial emergencynumbers. The occupational therapist also carefully evaluates the environments where the person completes activities todetermine those things that facilitate or inhibit participation, safety, and independence, then provides recommendationsand modications. For example, the therapist may recommend adding lighting and contrast to increase visibility in theenvironment or removing a hazard to reduce the risk of falls.Occupational therapy practitioners also apply their expertise with adaptive devices and assistive technology to enable olderadults to use optical and non-optical devices to complete ADLs. The practitioner, for example, may work with the personto use a prescribed optical device such as a hand-held magnier to complete shopping, or a non-optical device such as atalking glucometer to complete diabetes self-management.Occupational therapy practitioners also work with persons to use their remaining vision as efciently as possible tocomplete ADLs. This may include teaching a person with central vision loss how to use another part of the retina to seeletters more clearly when reading a medication label, or teaching a person who has lost vision on one side from a stroke toscan the environment more quickly and completely on the blind side to avoid missing objects, which may hinder safety orthe ability to read print.
Occupational Therapy Services for
 
Persons With Visual Impairment
www.aota.org4720 Montgomery Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-3425Phone: 301-652-2682 TDD: 800-377-8555 Fax: 301-652-7711
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