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On Distributed Communication Networks

On Distributed Communication Networks

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Published by Bryce Thomas

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Published by: Bryce Thomas on Jun 01, 2011
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06/01/2011

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OX
DI~T~BWTEDCOMMUKICATIO~SNET~OP~
PaulBaran
September1962
 
ONDISTRIBUTEDCOMMUNICATIONSNETWORKS
PaulBaran*TheRANDCorporation~SantaMonica~California
INTRODUCTION
Thepreviouspaper**describedhowredundancyofcodingcanbeusedtobuildefficientdigitaldatalinksoutoftransmissionlinksofvariableandoftenlessthanpresentlyusefulquality.Anarbitrarilylowover-allerrorratecanbepurchasedwithamodestredundancyofcodingandcleverterminalequipment.Butevenlinkswithlowerrorratescanhavelessthanperfectreliability.Weshouldliketoextendtheremarksofthepreviouspaperandaddressourselvestotheproblemofbuilding*Anyviewsexpressedinthispaperarethoseoftheauthor.TheyshouldnotbeinterpretedasreflectingtheviewsofTheRANDCorporationortheofficialopinionorpolicyofanyofitsgovernmentalorprivateresearchsponsors.PapersarereproducedbyTheRANDCorporationasacourtesytomembersofitsstaff.ThispaperwaspreparedforpresentationattheFirstCongressoftheInformationSystemsSciences~sponsoredbyTheMITRECorporationandtheUSAFElectronicSystemsDivision~November,
1962.
ThewriterisindebtedtoJohnBowerforhissug-gestionsthatswitchinginanystore-and-forwardsystemcanbedescribedbyamodelofapostmasteratablack-board.ProgrammingassistanceprovidedbySharIaBoehm,JohnDerr,andJosephSmithisgratefullyacknowledged.**ApriorpaperwaspresentedbyPaulRosenandIrwinLebowofMITLincolnLaboratories,discussingredundancyofcodingonasinglelink,"LowErrorEfficientDigitialCommunicationsLinks,"FirstCongressontheInformationSystemsSciences~McGraw-Hill,NewYork~
1962.
 
-2-
digitalcommunicationnetworksusinglinkswithlessthanperfectreliability.Weshallagaintradeinthecurrencyofredundancy,butinsteadofredundancyofcodingweshallmakeuseofredundancyofconnectivity.Thisthingcalledredundancyisapowerfultool.Butthesystemsplannermustchoosethatformofredundancysothattheformofthe"noise"orinterferenceappearstobesomewhatstatisticallyindependentforeachredundantelementadded.Ifthisgoaliscompletelymet,therecanbeanexponentialpayoffforalinearincreaseofaddedelements.Asanexample,weshallconsiderinsomedetailthesynthesisofasystemwheretheformofthedisturbanceor"noisell1sthesimultaneousdestructionofmanygeographi-callyseparatedinstallations.Thesysteminparticularistobeaveryhigh-speeddigitaldatatransmissionnet-workcomposedofunreliablelinks,butwhichexhibitsanyarbitrarilydesiredlevelofsystemreliabilityorsurviv-ability.
DEFINITIONOFSURVIVABILITY
Thiscommunicationsnetworkshallbecomposedofseveralhundredstationswhichmustintercommunicatewith
one
another.Survivabilityashereindefinedisthepercentageofstationssurvivingaphysicalattackandremaininginelectricalconnectionwiththelargestsinglegroupofsur-vivingstations.Thiscriterionisameasureoftheabilityofthesurvivingstationstooperatetogetherasacoherententityafterattack.

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