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Characteristics of Learning Disabilities

Characteristics of Learning Disabilities

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Published by Matt
information about teaching students with learning disabilities - describes common characteristics
information about teaching students with learning disabilities - describes common characteristics

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Matt on Jun 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/12/2013

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING DISABILITIESIntroduction – What is Perception?Input into the sensesKey Indicators: Spelling and Handwriting
A. SEVEN COMPONENTS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION
1. VISUAL DISCRIMINATIONb-d reversals (p-q, d-p, m-n, m-w)Ed – Eb was – saw, who – how, drop – bropAbrahan Lincolm
These are not careless mistakes. Significant beyond 2
nd 
grade.
2. VISUAL FIGURE-GROUNDDisturbed by pages with busy illustrationsVision might shift from one focus to anotherCannot read chart, maps, or graphsOmits whole sections of tests or homework 
 Brain is not screening out irrelevant info. from key info
.3. VISUAL CLOSURESees parts, not the whole.Has trouble filling in the mission letters or wordsSlow reader . .. sees every letter before the whole wordCannot scan a chapterCannot quickly read a hyphenated wordTrouble with mazes.4. VISUAL SPATIAL ORIENTATIONDoes not see the marginsCrowd words or math problems on one sectionnumbers or letters overlap or collidethings seem to jump around on the pageWe need to ask, what is going on for you when you are reading thator doing that?
 
5. VISUAL MEMORYFirst grade . . . cannot retain sight wordsVery poor spellerPoor recall of shapesDifficulty with clocksCannot handle true false tests6. VISUAL SEQUENCING(January,1998,6)false -- falestrue -- turewhole -- howleexamples of math: 18 ÷ 9 = 9 and 42 ÷ 6 = 47. VISUAL MOTOR INTEGRATIONEyes are seeing it, but the hand won’t do itPoor handwritingCannot take notesHas problems typing, or other mechanical operationsUsually hates art and P.E. (because they are really difficult for them)All manipulatives are dreadfulHead is moving while reading for trackingMay skip lines in a paragraphCOPYING FROM THE BOARD IS DEADLY FOR ALL OF THE ABOVE
B. SIX COMPONENTS OF AUDITORY
 
PERCEPTION
 1. AUDITORY DISCRIMINATIONReceives it incorrectly (train=chrain, deaf = death)Expressive language problemsMay not hear ending sounds, or medial sounds (confuses (v/f and i/e)Trouble rhymingCannot hear accented syllableMispronounces multi-syllabic wordsPrefixes and suffixes disappear
 
2. AUDITORY FIGURE GROUNDBackground noise cannot be separated from relevant information(tapping, music, conversation)Especially6 apparent in A.D.D.3. AUDITORY CLOSUREOmits final consonantsSlurred speechCannot hear syllables4. AUDITORY MEMORYDifficulty following directionsSlow to process auditory info. (note taking)Lack memory processWord retrieval problemsMakes substitutions in reading (horse-pony)Uses non-specific words (stuff, thing)Uses gestures to explain5. AUDITORY SEQUENCINGDifficulty memorizing days of week, months of year, numbers onphone, or address, ordinal numbersCannot retell a story, recite a list of thingsCannot recall steps of directions given6. AUDITORY ASSOCIATION AND COMPREHENSIONHigher level thinking (begins to show in 4
th
or 5
th
grade)Trouble UNDERSTANDING directionsTrouble with multi word meaningsLiteral interpretationCannot catch voice inflections, idioms, jokes, metaphorsC. SPATIAL ORIENTATIONWithin the body . . . lateralityRight left orientation (outside the body)Difficulty with physically relating to objects and other peopleMaps and directions are very hardMotor skills and coordination problems

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