Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Digital to Analog Conversion

Digital to Analog Conversion

|Views: 29|Likes:
Published by XXX

More info:

Published by: XXX on Jun 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





In this section, we will discuss a number of methods of realizing DACs. We will study three main classes of DACs: decoderbased DACs, binary weighted DACs, thermometer code DACs.
Decoder based DACs
A typical decoder based DAC consists of a resistor string (acting as a voltage divider) that provides taps for the differentvoltage levels for digital to analog data conversion. One of these voltage taps is selected by a decoder network to connectappropriate voltage tap to the output node. An example of a 3 bit (8 level) DAC is shown in Figure 3.1
Figure 3.1 A 3 bit decoder based DAC using resitor-string and transmission gate decoder.
The decoding network consists of a number of transmission gates that form a switching network. The switching network isconnected in the form of a tree; only one low impedance path connecting one of the resistor string voltage tap point to theoutput node exists. The advantage of using a transmission gate network is that the output voltage will operate at close to thepower supply voltage levels.Instead of transmission gates, we can use a NMOS transistor based decoder; this results in reduced value of voltage swing atthe output node. However the speed of operation may not be severely diminished because of reduced amount of source anddrain capacitance because of the absence of the PMOS transistors. This reduced capacitance can offset for the increasedresistance due to the absence of pMOS transistors of the transmission gates.The resistor string tap points ensure that monotonicity is maintained in the tapped voltage and therefore for the DAC. Theaccuracy of the DAC depends on the matching of these resistors.The delay through the decoding network determines the data conversion speed of the DAC. Each of the transmission gateadds to the resistance of the decoding path and any low impedance path will have N transmission gates that are ON. The
30-Apr-11Digital to Analog Conversioncnea.gov.ar//Digital to Analog Conver1/7
capacitive load consists of at the source and drain capacitances of nearly 3N transistors (2N from the transistors comprisingtransmission gates and source/drain capacitance of N non switching transistors of the high impedance paths).A higher speed implementation of the DAC is shown in Figure 3.2. It consists of an independent decoder that drives one of the2
transistors that are connected to the resistive string divider. Although resistance of the switching network is reduced in thisapproach, the capacitive load is increased because one end of all transmission gates is connected to the output node.
Fig 3.2 A resistor string DAC using a digital decoder network.
Binary weighted DACs
Since binary number system is used to represent the digital words, individual bits have binary weights depending on theposition of the bit within the digital word. If each bit contributes to a current equal to its binary weight, then a simple summingamplifier can be used to convert a digital word to its analog value. This scheme is used in binary weighted DACs and we willlook into two different implementations. Although, the examples are illustrated using a resistive network, similar configurationcan be built using capacitive networks.
30-Apr-11Digital to Analog Conversioncnea.gov.ar//Digital to Analog Conver2/7
Binary weighted resistor DAC
Fig 3.3. A binary weighted DAC implementation (4 bit)
A circuit schematic of a binary weighted DAC is given in Figure 3.3. When the value of the digital bits is a '1', the currentthrough the binary weighted resitance is diverted to flow through the feedback resistor, Rf; otherwise, the current flows directlyto ground.The current flowing through the resistors in either position of the switch is constant. I4 = V
/ 2R I3 = V
/ 4R I2 = V
/ 8R I1 = V
/ 16 The output voltage due to the current flow in the feedback resistor is given as
30-Apr-11Digital to Analog Conversioncnea.gov.ar//Digital to Analog Conver3/7

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->