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E Bridge Bulletin 13 Demographic challenges for modern Europe

E Bridge Bulletin 13 Demographic challenges for modern Europe

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Published by ITURBROK S.L.
Poland has the lowest birth rate in the whole European Union, similar to that of Lithuania, Germany and Italy. Unfortunately, forecasts indicate that this rate is going to decrease every year. The birth rate will increase, however,
in developing countries – in the Near East or in Africa.
Poland has the lowest birth rate in the whole European Union, similar to that of Lithuania, Germany and Italy. Unfortunately, forecasts indicate that this rate is going to decrease every year. The birth rate will increase, however,
in developing countries – in the Near East or in Africa.

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Published by: ITURBROK S.L. on Jun 02, 2011
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06/02/2011

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This project has been unded with support rom theEuropean Commission. This publication reects theviews only o the author, and the Commission cannot beheld responsible or any use which may be made o theinormation contained therein.
Bulletin 13
March/April 2011
    w    w    w .     2    m    o     b     i     l     i     t    y .    e    u
E-Bridge to mobility was created ater observing theEU labour market and analysing the needs o EasternEurope emigrants (especially those rom Bulgaria,Poland, Romania and Slovakia).They move rom one EU country to another (inparticular the U.K., Germany and Spain) oreducational, fnancial or social reasons.
Poland has the lowest birth rate in the wholeEuropean Union, similar to that of Lithuania,Germany and Italy. Unfortunately, forecastsindicate that this rate is going to decrease everyyear. The birth rate will increase, however,in developing countries – in the Near Eastor in Africa.
Forecasts show how signicantly the population o Europe willdecrease and how lie expectancy will increase . By the year 2050,lie expectancy will increase rom the present level o 68 to 76 yearsold, and in highly developed countries rom 77 to 83. A hal o the 2,5billion additional population in the coming 40 years will be over 60. Thereore, in the middle o the 21
st
century there will be three timesmore people aged over 60 than today. In many developed countriesthe 60+ generation will make up one-third o the total population. The number o 80 year-olds will be increasing even aster.In Poland the oldest generation is growing righteningly ast, similarto other European countries. In 2030 the number o retired peoplewill be twice as big as it is now. The reason is simple: today in Polandthere are 1,3 children per one woman, while only 40 years ago therate was 4,3. Thereore, in order to keep the present level o employ-ment in Western Europe, the demand or immigrants will doublein the youngest countries and triple in the oldest ones and the de-mand will remain that high or decades.Europe is currently acing huge economic and social challenges.What can be done to avoid a situation in which some Europeancountries, including Poland, would become huge old people’shomes that no one would take seriously, and where nancing thebasic needs o the whole society would become impossible becauseo an insucient number o tax-payers?
Many Europeans put o havinga amily or economic reasons. Lack o aordable accommodation, lowwages , in brie–an economic situationwhich puts couples o child-bearing ageo having a amily. Demographic prob-lems are another contributing actor:increased lie expectancy, better healthas well as the “baby-boom” generationgrowing up andl not having as manychildren as their parents did. Besides,the younger generation is reaching thedierent stages o lie at a more matureage than their parents did. They starteducation later, study longer, start theirproessional career later and have aamily later. More oten than not theyonly have one child. A 2+1 amily modelis very popular in modern society.
Demographic challenges
for modern Europe
 
The „E-bridge” partners:
Among the ve most populated MemberStates only the United Kingdom and Francewill experience a growth in population be-tween 2005 and 2050 (+ 8 % and + 9,6 %)[8].In some cases the all in population will beginbeore the year 2015 and in some countries itwill exceed 10 % or 15 % by the year 2050.
By the year 2025 population o the EU will grow slightly,mainly due to an infux o immigrants, and then it will startdecreasing [1]: 458 millions o citizens in 2005, 469,5 mil-lion in 2025 (+ 2 %), 468,7 million in 2030. However, 55 outo 211 regions o the European Union beore enlargement(EU 15,) already noticed a all in population in the secondhal o 1990s. The same situation was observed in majorityo new Member States (35 out o 55 regions), mainly due toa natural decrease and emigration.
A alling birth rate may result in a more pronounced de-crease in GDP rom the present level o 2-2,25 % to 1,25 %in 2040. It can be prevented by increased employment in so-cial groups such as women, the young and elderly people. To make Europeans more aware o the importance o proes-sional and social activity, Europe needs to discuss the prob-lem widely and encourage EU citizens to develop all kinds o initiatives, which improve proessional skills.Due to a signicant demographic all, the European Unionsupports increased employment, especially among womenand elderly workers, supports investments in “human capi-tal” as well as higher productivity resulting rom economicreorms, research and innovation. This kind o support ena-bles the realization o projects such as E-bridge to mobility,which are meant to create a dynamic in society. A project likeE-bridge is very important or the development o proes-sional, social and linguistic skills, mobilizing mainly the old-er generation to social and proessional activity that wouldimprove quality o their lie. Europe should also pay specialattention to young people, assisting their proessional ca-reers, acilitating access to training and acilitating the rec-ognition o qualications, in order to keep up with dynamicchanges on the Community’s economic market. Acquiringnew competencies and lielong learning is and will remainan inevitable part o lie or each European.According to the Lisbon Agenda, in 2030 70% o Europeansociety will be proessionally active. The average age o peo-ple leaving the labour market will be increasing every year. This requires some preparation not only rom the presentelderly generation, but also rom young people, who willhave to cope with changes that are bound to happen. Today it is already known that any stimulation o am-ily-oriented changes, increasing the number o day nurs-eries and kindergartens, introducing amily allowancesas well as acilitating the proessional development o young parents is not enough. First o all amily orientedpolicy is not and will not become the basic and only so-lution or the ageing society. Increased migration (main-ly rom outside o the EU), which should satisy the exist-ing demand or labour orce on the market and providewelare in Europe, will inevitably become increasinglyimportant. The youngest generation seems to be acing the great-est challenge: this generation will have to bear the -nancial responsibility o supporting their grandparentsand great-grandparents. Thereore, Europe needs topay careul attention to the way young people are in-tegrated into society. Young people oten struggle withdiscrimination because o their age, lack o proessionalexperience, social or racial background or gender. Theseactors impose obstacles or their integration in activeproessional lie as well as or integration into society.

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