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Table Of Contents

1.1 The TwenTy-firsT CenTury’s PerfeCT energy sTorm
1.2 renewable energy for rural DeveloPmenT
1.3 renewable energy soluTions
1.4 global solar resourCe
Problems
2.1 inTroDuCTion
2.2 sun–earTh geomeTriC relaTionshiP
2.2.1 Earth–Sun DiStancE
2.2.2 apparEnt path of thE Sun
2.2.3 Earth anD cElEStial coorDinatE SyStEmS
2.2.4 poSition of thE Sun with rESpEct to a horizontal SurfacE
2.2.5 poSition of thE Sun with rESpEct to a tiltED SurfacE
2.3 equaTion of Time
2.4 sTruCTure of The sun
2.5 eleCTromagneTiC raDiaTion
2.6 solar sPeCTral DisTribuTion
2.7 solar ConsTanT
2.8 exTraTerresTrial solar raDiaTion
2.9 TerresTrial solar raDiaTion
2.10 measuremenT of TerresTrial solar raDiaTion
referenCes
3.1 inTroDuCTion
3.2 ConDuCTion heaT Transfer
3.4 Thermal resisTanCe CirCuiTs
3.5 one-Dimensional ConDuCTion heaT Transfer in a CylinDriCal CoorDinaTe
3.6 ConveCTion heaT Transfer
3.7 raDiaTion heaT Transfer
3.7.1 SurfacE propErty
3.7.2 BlackBoDy raDiation
3.7.3 rEal BoDy raDiation
3.8 inTroDuCTion To ThermoDynamiCs
3.8.1 thE firSt law of thErmoDynamicS
3.8.2 thE SEconD law of thErmoDynamicS
3.8.3 thE thirD law of thErmoDynamicS
4.1 inTroDuCTion
4.2 solar ColleCTors
4.2.1 flat-platE collEctorS
4.2.1.1 flat-Plate Collector Thermal Testing
4.2.1.2 Collector effciency Curve
4.2.2 EvacuatED-tuBE Solar collEctorS
4.2.3 concEntrating collEctorS
4.2.3.1 optic fundamentals for solar Concentration
4.2.3.2 Parabolic Concentrators
4.2.4 compounD paraBolic concEntratorS (cpcS)
4.2.5 frESnEl lEnS concEntratorS
4.2.6 hElioStatS
4.3 TraCKing sysTems
4.4 solar Thermal sysTems
4.4.1 paSSivE anD activE Solar thErmal SyStEmS
4.4.2 caSE of activE Solar Drying: SluDgE Drying
4.4.2.1 solar Thermal application: solar Distillation
4.4.4 caSE of paSSivE Solar inDirEct Drying: fooD Drying
4.4.5 caSE of an activE Solar chEmical procESS: watEr DEtoxification
5.1 inTroDuCTion
5.2 CrysTal sTruCTure
5.3 Cell PhysiCs
5.4 energy banDs
5.5 more abouT eleCTrons anD Their energy
5.6 eleCTrons anD holes
5.7 DireCT anD inDireCT banD-gaP maTerials
5.8 DoPing
5.9 TransPorT
5.10 generaTion anD reCombinaTion
5.11 The P–n JunCTion
5.12 solar Cell equaTions
5.13 CharaCTeriZaTion
5.14 effiCienCy
5.14.1 tEmpEraturE
5.14.2 light
5.14.3 typE anD purity of matErial
5.14.4 paraSitic rESiStancES
5.15 CurrenT researCh
5.15.1 concEntrating Solar cEllS
5.15.2 tanDEm cEllS
5.15.3 thin film tEchnologiES
5.15.4 Quantum DotS
5.16 Cell aPPliCaTions
5.16.1 utility powEr gEnEration
5.16.2 SpacE SyStEmS
5.16.3 Solar-powErED proDuctS
6.1 solar benefiTs
6.1.1 EnErgy altErnativES
6.2 basiC moDule eleCTriCal ConCePTs
6.2.1 pv ElEctrical charactEriSticS
6.2.2 common pv tErminology
6.2.3 i-v curvES
6.3 Pv arrays
6.3.1 incrEaSing voltagE
6.3.2 incrEaSing currEnt
6.4 Pv array TilT
6.5 Pv balanCe of sysTems
6.5.1 EnErgy StoragE
6.5.2 chargE controllErS
6.5.3 invErtErS anD convErtErS
6.6 Pv sysTem uTiliTy
6.6.1 grounDing anD BonDing Dc anD ac circuitS
6.6.2 nEt mEtEring
6.7 Pv sysTem safeTy
6.8 Pv sysTem TesTing rules
7.1 inTroDuCTion
7.2 solar resourCe siZing ConsiDeraTions
7.3 solar TraJeCTory
7.7 generiC waTer PumP siZing meThoDology
7.8 eleCTriCal CoDes for Pv sysTem Design
7.9 sTanD-alone Pv lighTing Design examPle
8.1 inTroDuCTion
8.2 griD-TieD Pv
8.3 JaPanese Pv DeveloPmenT anD aPPliCaTions
8.3.1 JapanESE govErnmEnt’S approach
8.3.2 JapanESE pv utilitiES
8.3.3 JapanESE markEting
8.3.4 JapanESE pv ElEctrical coDE
8.3.5 JapanESE pv DESign
8.3.6 JapanESE pv SyStEm guarantEES
8.3.7 JapanESE pv DEvElopmEnt
8.3.8 JapanESE pv moDulE cErtification
8.4 fuTure JaPanese TrenDs
8.5 sTanD-alone Pv aPPliCaTions
8.5.1 pv Solar homE lighting SyStEmS
8.5.2 pv BattEry charging StationS
8.6 Pv for sChools
8.7 Pv for ProTeCTeD areas
8.7.1 pv icE-making anD rEfrigEration
8.7.2 pv icE-making
8.8 Pv waTer-PumPing
8.8.1 hyDraulic workloaDS
8.8.2 othEr conSiDErationS
8.8.3 prESSurE
8.8.4 Static hEaD
8.8.5 pumping rEQuirEmEntS
8.8.6 Dynamic SyStEmS
8.8.7 watEr DEmanD
8.8.7.1 water resources
8.8.8 StoragE of watEr vErSuS StoragE of EnErgy in BattEriES
8.8.9 pumping mEchaniSmS uSED for Solar pumpS
8.8.9.1 Centrifugal Pumps
8.8.9.2 Positive Displacement Pumps
8.8.9.3 surface Pumps versus submersible Pumps
8.8.10 typES of motorS uSED with Solar pumpS
8.8.11 Solar pump controllErS
8.8.11.1 additional features of Pump Controllers
8.8.12 pump SElEction
8.8.13 inStallation, opEration, anD maintEnancE
8.8.14 SyStEm inStallation
8.8.14.1 Civil works
8.8.14.2 Piping
8.8.14.3 surface-Pump installation
8.8.14.5 installation of submersible Pumps
8.9 grounDing anD lighTning ProTeCTion for solar waTer PumPs
8.9.2 grounD
8.9.3 float Switch caBlE
8.9.4 aDDitional lightning protEction
8.10 solar TraCKing for solar waTer PumPs
8.10.1 paSSivE trackErS
8.10.2 activE trackErS vErSuS paSSivE trackErS
8.11 oPeraTion anD mainTenanCe of The sysTems
8.12 The Pv array
8.12.1 pumpS anD motorS
8.12.2 watEr Supply SyStEmS
8.13 Pv waTer-PumPing resulTs
9.1 solar energy is free, buT whaT Does iT CosT?
9.2 eConomiC feasibiliTy
9.2.1 pv coStS
9.3 eConomiC faCTors
9.4 eConomiC analysis
9.4.1 SimplE payBack
9.4.2 coSt of EnErgy
9.5 life CyCle CosT
9.6 PresenT value anD leveliZeD CosTs
9.6.1 StEpS to DEtErminE thE lcc
9.7 annualiZeD CosT of energy
9.8 exTernaliTies
9.8.1 ExtErnality Evaluation mEthoDS
9.8.2 SociEtal pErSpEctivES on Solar EnErgy utilization
9.9 solar irrigaTion Case sTuDy
9.9.1 EStimating SyStEm coStS
9.9.2 taBlE of approximatE coStS
9.9.3 compariSon of pumping altErnativES
9.10 waTer PumPing examPle
9.11 summary
10.1 inTroDuCTion
10.2 susTainabiliTy
10.3 insTiTuTional ConsiDeraTions
10.3.1 policy iSSuES
10.3.2 capacity BuilDing
10.3.3 EDucation anD training
10.3.4 tEchnical aSSiStancE
10.3.5 local infraStructurE DEvElopmEnt
10.3.6 involving thE community: SuStainaBility anD incluSion
10.4 sTaKeholDers
10.4.1 panElS vErSuS fuEl or ElEctric BillS
10.4.2 community rEDuction of thEft riSkS
10.4.3 pv anD thE “virtuouS circlE”
10.5 Program imPlemenTaTion
10.5.1 conDuct StratEgic planning
10.5.2 pilot proJEct implEmEntation
10.5.3 crEatE SuStainaBlE markEtS
10.5.4 graSSrootS DEvElopmEnt approach
10.5.5 inStall appropriatE harDwarE
10.5.6 monitoring
10.6 insTiTuTional moDels for solar energy DisseminaTion
10.6.1 caSh SalES
10.6.2 conSumEr financing
10.6.2.1 revolving Credit fund
10.6.2.2 local bank Credit
10.6.3 lEaSing
10.6.3.1 Dealer Credit
10.6.4 SuBSiDiES
10.7 managemenT anD ownershiP
10.7.1 authorization arrangEmEnt
10.7.2 contractS
10.7.3 lEaSES
10.7.4 ownErShip tranSfEr (flip moDEl)
10.7.5 aSSociationS anD coopErativES
10.8 Tariffs anD PaymenT
10.8.1 frEE
10.8.2 nominal (SuBSiDizED)
10.8.3 fEE for SErvicE
10.8.4 paymEnt
10.9 oTher CriTiCal issues
10.10 summary
11.1 inTroDuCTion
11.2 baTTeries in Pv sysTems
11.2.1 lEaD-antimony BattEriES
11.2.2 lEaD-calcium BattEriES
11.2.3 captivE ElEctrolytE BattEriES
11.2.4 nickEl-caDmium BattEriES
11.3 leaD-aCiD baTTery ConsTruCTion
11.3.1 platE griDS
11.3.1.1 Positive and negative Plates
11.3.1.2 separators
11.3.1.3 elements
11.3.1.4 Cell Connectors
11.3.1.5 Containers
11.3.1.6 vent Plugs
11.4 leaD-aCiD baTTery oPeraTion
11.4.1 DiSchargE cyclE
11.4.2 chargE cyclE
11.4.3 ElEctrolytE anD SpEcific gravity
11.4.4 watEr
11.4.5 BattEry rounDtrip EfficiEncy
11.5 leaD-aCiD baTTery CharaCTerisTiCs
11.5.1 ampErE-hour StoragE capacity
11.5.2 BattEry cyclE lifE
11.5.3 BattEry connEctionS
11.6 baTTery Problem areas
11.6.1 ovErcharging
11.6.2 unDErcharging
11.6.3 Short circuitS
11.6.4 Sulfation
11.6.5 watEr loSS
11.6.6 SElf-DiSchargE
11.7 baTTery mainTenanCe
11.7.1 hyDromEtEr DEScription anD uSE
11.7.2 tEmpEraturE corrEction
11.7.3 tropical climatES
11.8 baTTery safeTy PreCauTions
11.8.1 BattEry aciD
11.8.2 hyDrogEn gaS
11.8.3 BattEry EncloSurES
11.9 DeTerminaTion of baTTery failure
11.9.1 BattEry applicationS anD inStallation
11.9.2 BattEry SErvicE hiStory
11.9.3 viSual inSpEction
11.9.4 BattEry agE
11.9.5 ovErcharging anD unDErcharging
11.9.6 intErnal Examination
11.9.7 containEr
11.9.8 ElEctrolytE
11.10 baTTery seleCTion CriTeria
11.10.1 BattEry procurEmEnt conSiDErationS
11.10.1.1 additional battery manufacturer specifcations
11.10.2 aDDitional BattEry SyStEm conSiDErationS
11.10.2.1 small-system Considerations
11.10.2.2 large-system Considerations
11.11 Charge ConTroller Terminology
11.12 Charge ConTroller algoriThms
11.12.1 Shunt controllEr
11.12.2 SEriES controllEr
11.13 Charge ConTroller seleCTion CriTeria
11.13.1 chargE controllEr procurEmEnt SpEcificationS
Solar Energy Glossary
baTTeries
eleCTriCiTy
PhoTovolTaiCs
solar energy ConCePTs
solar waTer-PumPing
Appendix A: World Insolation Data
Appendix B: Friction Loss Factors
Appendix C: Present Value Factors
Appendix D: Table of Approximate PV Pumping-System Costs
Index
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Solar Energy

Solar Energy

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Published by GONCU

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Published by: GONCU on Jun 02, 2011
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