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Tri-Calcium Phosphates as a Biomaterial

Tri-Calcium Phosphates as a Biomaterial

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Published by Mehmet Serdar Teke

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Mehmet Serdar Teke on Jun 02, 2011
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08/19/2011

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1.
Tricalcium Phosphates
The chemical structure of tricalcium phosphate is
243
)(
 POCa
.
TCP is used for theabbreviation of tricalcium phosphate. There are two types of TCP which are α-TCP and β-TCP.
1.1.Properties of Calcium Phosphates
The most important parameters for calcium phosphates are the molar Ca/P ratio, basicity/acidity and solubility. These parameters strongly correlate with the solution pH. Thelower the Ca/P molar ratio is, the more acidic and water-soluble the calcium orthophosphateis.Molar Ca/P ratio is the main factor that determines the other parameters of calcium phosphates.In the reaction above, the basic formation procedure for a calcium phosphate ceramic isshown. In this reaction, phosphoric acid is the source for the phosphate ion and calciumhydroxide is the source for calcium ion. Using this reaction it can be concluded that molar Ca/P ratio increases as number of moles of Phosphoric acid decreases and it decreases asnumber of moles of Phosphoric acid increases if number of moles of Calcium Hydroxide iskept constant.Increasing the phosphate ion during the synthesis of Calcium Phosphate increases theacidity of the Calcium Phosphate because phosphate ion comes from the phosphoric acid.Increasing the phosphate ion means decreasing the Ca/P ratio according to the statement inthe previous paragraph. Thus, decreasing the molar Ca/P ratio increases the acidity of thecalcium phosphate.When the acidity of calcium phosphate is increased, its solubility in water is increasedsince the acids can easily dissolve in water. In other words, decreasing the Ca/P molar ratioincreases the solubility of Calcium Phosphate.
243342
)(
 POCa POCa
+
+
 
When we take a look at the figure above, it is seen that ignition products at 800
o
C for enamel, dentin and bone are illustrated. For enamel and dentin, they are β-TCP andhydroxyapatite, and for bone they are CaO and hydroxyapatite. When we compare the molar Ca/P ratios for them, enamel and dentin has lower molar Ca/P ratios than bone which provesthat β-TCP has a lower molar Ca/P ratio than hydroxyapatite.In the figure above, some properties of calcium phosphates are compared. When we take alook at the pH stability range in aqueous solutions at 25
o
C, it is seen that α-TCP and β-TCP
 
cannot be precipitated from aqueous solutions which implies they are soluble in all ranges of  pH. This result proves that TCP has a lower molar Ca/P ratio than the hydroxyapatite sincethe solubility of calcium phosphate is inversely proportional to the molar Ca/P ratio.The results obtained from these two figures prove the statements made for the solubilityand molar Ca/P ratio at the beginning of the report.In the figure above, the pH solubility range of calcium phosphates is shown. It shows thatin the body conditions, meaning that at the pH around 7, α-TCP and β-TCP has a higher solubility than the hydroxyapatite. Also, α-TCP has a higher solubility than β-TCP. Thissituation depends on the synthesis procedure for them and it will be discussed in the followingof the report.
1.2.
Synthesis of Tricalcium Phosphates
Tricalcium phosphates cannot be precipitated from aqueous solution as mentioned before.Therefore, there is a different way to produce tricalcium phosphates. Β-TCP is a high-temperature phase of calcium orthophosphates, which can only be prepared by thermaldecomposition of CDHA, calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, at temperatures above 800
o
C.Apart from chemical preparation procedures, ion-substituted β-TCP can be prepared bycalcining of bone, which is called “bone ash”.

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