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Generation of Surface Plasmon

Generation of Surface Plasmon

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Published by Oka Kurniawan

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Published by: Oka Kurniawan on Jun 03, 2011
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 Generation of Surface Plasmon PolaritonUsing Plasmonic Resonant Cavity Based onMicrodisk Laser
Volume 3, Number 3, June 2011
O. Kurniawan, Member, IEEEI. Ahmed, Member, IEEEE. P. Li, Fellow, IEEE
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2011.21288631943-0655/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
Generation of Surface Plasmon PolaritonUsing Plasmonic Resonant CavityBased on Microdisk Laser
Electronics and Photonics, Institute of High Performance Computing, A
STAR, Singapore 138632
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2011.2128863 1943-0655/$26.00 
2011 IEEE 
Manuscript received December 21, 2010; revised February 25, 2011; accepted March 7, 2011.Date of publication March 17, 2011; date of current version May 6, 2011. Corresponding author:O. Kurniawan (e-mail: oka_kurniawan@sp.edu.sg).
We study the generation of surface plasmon polariton and its extraction efficiencyfrom a microdisk-based plasmonic source to a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguide. Thefield distribution is no longer a whispering gallery mode commonly found in microdisk lasersbut hybridized with surface plasmon polariton. We observe the steady-state intensity of thesurface plasmon polariton mode inside the plasmonic microdisk structure at 1.47-
mwavelength. This field intensity is extracted efficiently to a MIM plasmonic waveguidethrough a nanometer gap. The extraction efficiency reaches 60%.
Index Terms:
Plasmonics, waveguide, source.
1. Introduction
Nanoscale devices which work at the speed of light are exciting research areas. Conventionalphotonic devices, however, have large dimensions due to the diffraction limit. Recently, it has beenproved theoretically and demonstrated experimentally that the diffraction limit can be overcome byconcentrating and channeling light using subwavelength structures, which are often calledplasmonic devices [1]. In plasmonic devices, the electromagnetic waves propagate at the interfaceof a dielectric and a metal. An important research opportunity in this nanophotonics field is a surfaceplasmon source.The lack of surface plasmon source is normally resolved by using light source from free-spacewhich is then coupled to plasmonic devices. However, it is known that the surface plasmon modemomentum
is greater than that of the free-space photon momentum at the same frequency
[2]. Therefore, a change of momentum is required to couple light from free-space to surfaceplasmons at metal–dielectric interface. Three main techniques are commonly used to achieve thiscoupling:usingprisms[3],[4],scatterings[5],andgratings[6].Laserisacommonlyusedlightsourcefor these experiments. It is beneficial to have a surface plasmon source similar to lasers that can becoupled directly to waveguides.The search for a surface plasmon source has shown some progress. In 2003, Bergman andStockman showed that a stimulated amplification of plasmon mode can be achieved [7]–[9]. Theycalculated the gain of the stimulated amplification emission when a metal structure was em-bedded inside a gain medium. In this way, the local field was excited using the surface plasmonamplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser), and the term spaser was introducedfor the first time [7]. Later on, it has been shown that spaser is able to create lasing effects[10]–[13].
Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2011 Page 344IEEE Photonics Journal Generation of Surface Plasmon Polariton
Recently, Akimov
et al.
showed that the light from a quantum dot can be coupled to the surfaceplasmon of the metallic nanowires [14]. Koller 
et al.
then successfully demonstrated a surfaceplasmon emitter based on organic light emitting diodes and is useful for organic devices [15]. A year later, Walters
et al.
proposed a silicon-based electrical source for surface plasmon polariton [16]. Inthis structure, the surface plasmon was excited by using impact ionization process due to the highelectric field of the metal layers. They detected the surface plasmon by scattering out the waveusing nanoslits.In this paper, we study an active device that emits surface plasmon polariton modes which can becoupled directly to plasmonic devices, such as a waveguide. Such a device eliminates thecomplexity of further coupling light from free space to plasmonic devices. The active device for thesurface plasmon source that we study in this work is based on a microdisk laser [17] and is shown inFig. 1. The modes of the microdisk resonator allow only certain frequencies to survive. The circular shape acts as a resonator where light is reflected internally as it travels. It is well known that lightwaves in a microdisk travel in a whispering gallery mode (WGM) fashion [18]. We will show later that plasmonic microdisk behaves differently than conventional microdisk laser.The main advantage of this structure is that a cavity structure is utilized to enhance the surfaceplasmon polariton wave intensity, and that its cross section is similar to a metal–insulator–metal(MIM) plasmonic waveguide [see Fig. 1(c) and (d)] [19], [20]. This enables one to efficientlycouple the surface plasmon polariton from the plasmonic microdisk to the MIM plasmonicwaveguide.The plasmonic microdisk structure is studied by using a full wave 3-D finite difference timedomain (FDTD) code which incorporates combined dynamic thermal electron quantum medium(DTEQM) and Lorentz-Drude (LD) dispersive models [21]. A 3-D simulation is required since thelight wave would normally travel in the
plane through a WGM while the metal confinement is onthe
-direction. This is the first reported study of such structure in three dimension. Furthermore,our in-house FDTD code incorporates electron dynamics based on a multilevel multielectronquantum system governed by the Pauli exclusion principle, state filling, and dynamical Fermi–DiracThermalization [22]. This model enables one to treat various solid-state or atomic media. Mostprevious studies were not able to take into account the electron dynamic in the semiconductor media and only consider the semiconductor layer as a simple dielectric [16]. The metallic part, onthe other hand, is modeled by the LD dispersive model which is widely used for plasmoniccalculations [21].Our calculation results show that the hybridized surface plasmon mode can be extractedefficiently to the MIM waveguide. The high extraction efficiency is mainly caused by the gap
Fig. 1. Dark regions indicate metals and light regions indicate dielectric or semiconductor. (a)Conventional microdisk laser. (b) Plasmonic microdisk with metal on top and bottom of the gainmedium. (c) Side view of the proposed structure, with a plasmonic microdisk coupled to a metal–insulator–metal plasmonic waveguide. (d) Bird eye view of the proposed structure.
IEEE Photonics Journal Generation of Surface Plasmon PolaritonVol. 3, No. 3, June 2011 Page 345

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