Generation of Surface Plasmon PolaritonUsing Plasmonic Resonant CavityBased on Microdisk Laser
Electronics and Photonics, Institute of High Performance Computing, A
STAR, Singapore 138632
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2011.2128863 1943-0655/$26.00
Manuscript received December 21, 2010; revised February 25, 2011; accepted March 7, 2011.Date of publication March 17, 2011; date of current version May 6, 2011. Corresponding author:O. Kurniawan (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
We study the generation of surface plasmon polariton and its extraction efficiencyfrom a microdisk-based plasmonic source to a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguide. Thefield distribution is no longer a whispering gallery mode commonly found in microdisk lasersbut hybridized with surface plasmon polariton. We observe the steady-state intensity of thesurface plasmon polariton mode inside the plasmonic microdisk structure at 1.47-
mwavelength. This field intensity is extracted efficiently to a MIM plasmonic waveguidethrough a nanometer gap. The extraction efficiency reaches 60%.
Plasmonics, waveguide, source.
Nanoscale devices which work at the speed of light are exciting research areas. Conventionalphotonic devices, however, have large dimensions due to the diffraction limit. Recently, it has beenproved theoretically and demonstrated experimentally that the diffraction limit can be overcome byconcentrating and channeling light using subwavelength structures, which are often calledplasmonic devices . In plasmonic devices, the electromagnetic waves propagate at the interfaceof a dielectric and a metal. An important research opportunity in this nanophotonics field is a surfaceplasmon source.The lack of surface plasmon source is normally resolved by using light source from free-spacewhich is then coupled to plasmonic devices. However, it is known that the surface plasmon modemomentum
is greater than that of the free-space photon momentum at the same frequency
. Therefore, a change of momentum is required to couple light from free-space to surfaceplasmons at metal–dielectric interface. Three main techniques are commonly used to achieve thiscoupling:usingprisms,,scatterings,andgratings.Laserisacommonlyusedlightsourcefor these experiments. It is beneficial to have a surface plasmon source similar to lasers that can becoupled directly to waveguides.The search for a surface plasmon source has shown some progress. In 2003, Bergman andStockman showed that a stimulated amplification of plasmon mode can be achieved –. Theycalculated the gain of the stimulated amplification emission when a metal structure was em-bedded inside a gain medium. In this way, the local field was excited using the surface plasmonamplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser), and the term spaser was introducedfor the first time . Later on, it has been shown that spaser is able to create lasing effects–.
Vol. 3, No. 3, June 2011 Page 344IEEE Photonics Journal Generation of Surface Plasmon Polariton