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Automotive Diagnostic Systems - From OBD to Open Diagnostics Exchange format (ODX)

Automotive Diagnostic Systems - From OBD to Open Diagnostics Exchange format (ODX)

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Published by IQPC GmbH
Like in other fields, in automotive fault diagnosis, humans were increasingly removed from the loop, and computers took over until we are now at the stage of on-board diagnosis (OBD). Sensors are attached to various components, such as a cooling system's thermostat, and a wire runs from that through a harness and to a terminal block, which, in turn, is plugged into a diagnostic machine outside the car.

Find out more about Automotive Diagnostic Systems here: http://bit.ly/automotive-diagnostics
Like in other fields, in automotive fault diagnosis, humans were increasingly removed from the loop, and computers took over until we are now at the stage of on-board diagnosis (OBD). Sensors are attached to various components, such as a cooling system's thermostat, and a wire runs from that through a harness and to a terminal block, which, in turn, is plugged into a diagnostic machine outside the car.

Find out more about Automotive Diagnostic Systems here: http://bit.ly/automotive-diagnostics

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Published by: IQPC GmbH on Jun 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/10/2013

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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IQPC GmbH
 
|
 
Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germanyt: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de
Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
Advanced automotive diagnostic systems
From OBD to Open Diagnostics Exchange format (ODX) and limits and potentials of standardization processes
Before getting to ODX, itself, we need a quick review of OBD. Electronic ignitions and fuelinjection systems were the first major steps in getting away from mechanical fuel delivery andignition. Being able to control the volume of fuel and sparking it at the right time are criticalin controlling emissions, as well as making the vehicle more fuel efficient. Miniaturization anddevelopments in computer technology enabled a closer control over that efficiency, and, alongwith it, the monitoring of contaminants.All the while the technology was unfolding it was realized that not only that it was beneficialbut that it needed standardization. The diagnostic codes needed to be read in a mannerbetter than specialized machines. A brief word is needed about standardization processes.They do not often occur in a convivial environment, as there are many competing commercialinterests. Many times, a corporation will invest millions of dollars in developing a product,hoping that others will follow suit. There is a catch, however, if people can become dependentupon the way that product acts, then, the developers stand potentially to gain enormouslyfrom patent rights. A classic case of dependency was with the fiber optic FC (“ferruleconnector”). During the early 1990s, there were many fights in the Electronic IndustriesAssociation and Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards committees amongfiber optic cable developers about which standard was to prevail. It would be more convenientfor everyone to follow, but more important, if everyone had to use company X's productbecause it was the standard, then that dependency would be established. The same is true forautomotive diagnostic equipment being standardized. Major corporations will sendrepresentatives to these standardization committees to thrash out the issues and presenttheir arguments. While not the usual decorum, physical fights have been known to break outat these standardization meetings.In 1988 the Society of Automotive Engineers argued for a uniform diagnostic connector andstandardized test signals. After it became apparent that the original OBD was not going to bevery useful for universal use or for governments to incorporate into air quality legislation
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IQPC GmbH
 
|
 
Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germanyt: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de
Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
pertaining to automobiles, it was realized that further work was needed. Hence, came theOBD-II development.Yet, there still exist many problems in standardization. For example, automobilemanufacturers use five basic OBD-II protocols:
 
J1850 PWM
 
J1850 VPW
 
ISO9141
 
ISO14230 (also known as Keyword Protocol 2000)
 
CAN (ISO15765/SAEJ2480)[9]Chrysler, as well as every European manufacturer and the majority of the Asianmanufacturers use ISO 9141 circuitry. GM uses SAE variable pulse width modulation (VPM)patterns, while Ford uses SAE J1850 pulse width modulation (PWM) patterns. These threecommunicate with the standard 16-pin, J1962 connector, but there are different protocols.One can differentiate between the pin usage by inspection. Systems using the ISO 9141protocol locate a pin in position number 7 and a pin in either position number 2 or 10position. SAE protocol-based systems do not have pins with connections in position number 7.There are systems called 'OBD-II' that are compliant with laws and goes by the name of  “European OBD (EOBD). There also is the Japanese variety, called ‘JOBD’ [10].Specifically standard to the OBD-II are:
 
Type of connectors and number of pins – 16
 
Signaling protocols that can be used – limited to the five
 
Format of messages
 
A list of what is to be monitored
 
Methods for data coding
 
Power pin that can connect to the car battery
 
List of diagnostic trouble codes (DTC).[11]
 
 
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IQPC GmbH
 
|
 
Friedrichstr. 94 | D-10117 Berlin, Germanyt: +49 (0) 30 2091 3330 | f: +49 (0) 30 2091 3263 | e: eq@iqpc.de | w: www.iqpc.de
Visit IQPC for a portfolio of topic-related events, congresses, seminars and conferences: www.iqpc.de
Based on all this ODX was able to be created. As indicated by its name, “Open DiagnosticsExchange format”, or ODX, the industry was moving towards a uniform way of OBD. TheAssociation for Standardization of Automation and Measuring Systems [12] is responsible forthe ODX. ASAM was initiated by German car manufacturers and, in its own words, “...providesstandards for data models, interfaces and syntax specifications for a variety of applications,such as testing, evaluation and simulation.” Actually, ODX is a “market name”, the actualname being “Data Model for ECU [electronic control unit] Diagnostics (also: Open DiagnosticData Exchange Format) V2.2.0 18 May 2008 [13].” Since 1998, numerous automobilemanufacturers from all around the world have joined, and jointly, they create standards forInternational Organization for Standards (ISO) approval [14]. The ODX, created in 2002,went numerous revisions, and is stable enough for use. There were 25 core members, 19companies, and three countries that formed the standard [A report by the ODX ISO projectleader, A. Schleicher is available on-line [15]. As specified by the ISO website:The ODX specification contains the data model to describe all diagnostic data of a vehicle andphysical ECU, e.g. diagnostic trouble codes, data parameters, identification data, input/outputparameters, ECU configuration (variant coding) data and communication parameters. ODX isdescribed in Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagrams and the data exchange format usesExtensible Mark-up Language (XML).The ODX modelled diagnostic data describe:
 
protocol specification for diagnostic communication of ECUs;
 
communication parameters for different protocols and data link layers and for ECUsoftware;
 
ECU programming data (Flash);
 
related vehicle interface description (connectors and pinout);
 
functional description of diagnostic capabilities of a network of ECUs;
 
ECU configuration data (variant coding).The purpose of ISO 22901-1:2008 is to ensure that diagnostic data from any vehiclemanufacturer is independent of the testing hardware and protocol software supplied by anytest equipment manufacturer.[16]

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