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Admiralty Secondary School2008 Sec 4 Express Pure Physics Prelim (Exam Data-based Question)
10
Wind Power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such aselectricity, using wind turbines. Although wind currently produces about 1% of world-wide electricity use, it accounts for approximately 19% of electricityproduction in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and theRepublic of Ireland. Wind power was the fastest growing energy source at theend of 2004. In 2007, the countries with the highest total installed capacity wereGermany, the United States, Spain, India, and China. Denmark generates nearlyone-fifth of its electricity with wind turbines -- the highest percentage of anycountry.A wind turbine, as shown in
Figure 10
, has blades of length 22 m. When thewind speed is 15 m/s, the output power of the wind turbine is 1.2 MW. Theturbine is designed to operate when the speeds are within the range 10 m/s to 15m/s. At a wind speed of 10 m/s one wind turbine can supply a current of 4.0 A ata transformed voltage of 100 000V.
Figure 10
A steady supply of strong wind is necessary to use the power in the wind.
Thepower available to a wind turbine depends on the kinetic energy of a column of air with the same cross sectional
area
A
available power

from the wind is given by
P = ½ pAv
3
where
p
is the density of the air and v is the speed of the wind. Typically, thedensity of air is approximately 1.2 kg/m
3
.
wind turbine

(a)
Explain in your own words what is meant by
the
available power
from thewind
(Paragraph 3).
..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
[1]
(b)
When the wind speed is 15 m/s,
(i)
calculate the available power from the wind.available power = …………………………..[2]
(ii)
calculate the efficiency of the turbine.efficiency = …………………………..[2]
(c)
Calculate the minimum output power of the turbine when it is operating.available power = …………………………..[2]
(d)
State one condition which may reduce the electrical power output of thesystem.
...........................................................................................................................……............................................................................................................................…….
[1]
(e)
State one advantage of using wind energy.
...........................................................................................................................…….
[1]
(f)
Explain why
a steady supply of strong wind is necessary to use the power in the wind
(Paragraph 3)?
...........................................................................................................................……............................................................................................................................…….
[1]