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Cross Cultural Management

Cross Cultural Management

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Published by Cusaim Ali

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Published by: Cusaim Ali on Jun 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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 Author:QASIM ALI 
 BBA (H)
Please Respect my Intellectual Property
Culture is an important part of human being which distinguishes themselves from other human beings. The word culture is from the Latin word colere which means to cultivate(Harper, Douglas, 2001). Culture includes set of shared attitudes, beliefs, values, norms,and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group. Cultural norms playan important role in the procedure and interpersonal associations at work. When yougrow up in a culture you take your norms of behavior for established. You don't have tothink about your response, partiality, and approach. But when you go to some other country as an expatriate you will never going to deny the importance of culture. Now thequestion arises why there is a need of studying about culture. According to GeorgeSimmel “culture is the cultivation and improvement of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history” (Levine, Donald (ed)Simmel).Western culture refers to the European civilization. This term” western culture” is broadly used by cultural experts to describe heritage of social norms, ethnic values,traditional customs, religion and political system of western world. According to thedefinition of western culture Western culture is the set of literary,scientific,  political, artisticand philosophicalprinciples which set it apart from other civilizations (Jones, Prudence and Pennick, 1995). Though the term western culture is also used for thoselocations whose history are strongly marked by European immigrants, such as Americaand Australia. But the original constituent of western culture is central Europe (Ankerl,Guy 2000). On the other side the term Eastern world refers to the variousculturesof 2
Trust does not work in the same way across culture. The most influential research oncultural values has been done by Geert Hofstede, who was a psychologist by professionand worked in IBM for more than 30 years (Ijaz A Q, 2010). When you step into aforeign culture, suddenly things seem strange. You don't know what to do or how to actin an environment with different culture. Using Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions as aintegral point, you can evaluate your approach, your decisions, and actions based on ageneral sense of how the society might think and react to you. His empirical studies are based on work-related values have been extended to 74 countries, which coversapproximately all the countries of eastern and western world. In order to measure thecultural differences he has identified five major magnitude along which cultural valuesdifferences (Geert Hofstede, 1990).3

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