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NASA Facts Project Relay

NASA Facts Project Relay

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Published by Bob Andrepont
This is the same as an earler NASA Facts I uploaded except the pictures are of better quality here.
This is the same as an earler NASA Facts I uploaded except the pictures are of better quality here.

More info:

Published by: Bob Andrepont on Jun 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/03/2011

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Page
1
NASA
FACTS
(G-12-62)
An
Educational Services Public:ation
of
the
National
Aeronautics
and
Space
Administration
PROJECTRELAY
Relay
satellite superimposedonartist's conception
of
space
.
Within
five
years,
advances
in
space
tech
nology
may create
an
operational
com
munica
tions
satellite
system
that
will
vastly
increase
intercontinental telephone,
telegraph,
and
dataexchange
channels
and
makepossible
transocean
television.
Contributing
to
progress
toward
this
w
communications
era
is
NASA
's
Relay
satel
~
program.
Relay
is
designedto
test
intercontinentaltransmission
of
telephone, television, teleprint,andfacsimile
signals
vIa
a
medium-altitude
active-repeater
sate
II
ite.
report
on the
functioning
on
radiation
in
space
.
It
is
alsoequipped
to
of
its
equipment
and
Relay
is
the
first
space communications
experiment
designedto
link
three
continents-North
America,
Europe,
and
South
America.
 
Page 2
Medium-altitude
IS
an
arbitrary
designation
for
altitudes from
several
thousand to about
2,000
miles. Active
repeater
signifies
that
elay
is
equipped
to receive,
amplify,
and
tra nsmit
radio
signals.
Active-repeater
satel
lites
di
ffer
fro
m
passive
co
m m u ni
cati
onssatel
lites,
such as
Echo,
in
that
the
latter function
simply
as
mirrors
for
reflection
of
radio
signals.
Relay
is
but
one
of
severalexperimentalcommunications satellite
projects
embarked
upon
by
the
United
States.
The
different
technical
approaches
of
these
programs are
providing
an
extensive
variety
of
information
that
is
advancing
the
time
when
establishment
of
on
operational
system
willbe
achieved.
INCREASING GLOBAL
DEMAND
FOR
COMMUNICATIONS
SERVICES
Tremendous
growth
in
oversea
com
'
munications
demands
is
expected
during
the
next two
dec
ades.
The
numberof
overseas
telephone
calls
to and
fromthe United
States
is
rising
about
15
percent
each
year.
Use
of
oversea
teleprinterxchange
is
climbing
even
more
rapidly.
De
and
for world-wide
television
is
mounting.
Computers are
talking
to
each
other from
coast
to
coast
in
growing
numbers.
As
foreign
economies
expand,
a
need
is
developing for
high-speed
transmission
of
specialized
data from
one side
of
the
world
to the
otherand
for
data
origi
nating
in
numerous
oversea
locations
to
be
fed
into
centrally
locatedcomputer
systemsfor
rapid
processing
and
analysis.
Existing
trans
ocean
radioand
cable
equipment
cannot, for themost
part,
su
pply
such
services.
Radio
andcable
links
currently
furnish about
600
telephone
circuits
between
the
United
States
and
abroad.
Industry
estimates
that
twice
this
number
will
beneeded
in
1965
and that
requirements
will double again
by
1970.
By
1980,
about
10,000
circuits
may
be
needed
for
tele
phone
and
a
few other
services,
not
including
telecasts
nor
high-speed
data
transfers.
Although
short
wave
radio
and
undersea cable
ill
continue
to
play
an
important part
in
future
ommunication,
they
alone
cannot
meetfuture
needs.
Keeping
pace
with
global
demand
re-
NASA
FACTS
(G-12-62)
Symbolof
modernoverlond
communications-a
micro-
wave
tower.
quires
a
vast
increase in
circuit
capacity-an
increase
possible
through
employmentof
micro
wave.
MICROWAVE-COMMUNICATIONS
SUPERHIGHWA Y
Microwaves
are
extremely
short, ultra highfrequency
radio
signals
that
can
carry
at
the
speed
of light
vast
quantities
of
every known
form
of
com
munication.
Moreover,
microwa'
communication
is
immune
to
weatherand
iono
spheric disturbances
thatinterferewith
short wave
radio.
Within
the
continental United
States
and
 
NASA
FACTS
(G-12-62)
Th
is
shows
how
a
series
of
microwave towers
spaced
about
30
miles
apart
on
land
can
relay
microwaves
around
the
earth
's
curvature.
A
satellite
can act
as a
microwave
tower
in
the
sky,
relaying
microwave signals
across
oceons.
many
other countries, microwaves
are major
car
riers
of
telephone,
television,
telegraph,
punched
card, magnetic and
punched
tape,
teleprinter,
and
facsimile
communications
.In
effect,microwave
is
to otherelectroniccommunication
methods
in
use
today
as a
mod
ern
expressway
is
to
a
neighborhood
street.
However, microwaves,like
light,
travel
in
straight
lines-a
serious
limitation
on
a
roundearth.
land,
this
limitation
is
overcome
by
use
of
re
ay towers
spaced
about
30
miles
apart
so
thatmicrowaves
can move
in a
straight
linefrom
one
to
the
next.
Admittedly, it
is
impracticable to
Page
3
build
a
line
of
microwave
towers
across
the
ocean.
But
a
communications
satellite
such as
Relay
functions
as
the
equivalent
of
a
microwave
tower
high
in
the
sky,
enabling
microwavesto
vault
oceans.
THE
RELAY
SATELLITE
The
172-pound
Relay
satellite
is
33
inches
high
and
has a
maximum breadth
of 29
inches.
The
18-inchlong
mast-like
structure
mounted
on
its
narrow
end
is
the
broadband
antenna
for
carry
ing
out television and other
experiments
in
broadband
communications.
The
fourwhip-likeantennas
projecting
at
about 45-degree
anglesfrom the
broad
end
of
the
satellite
are
for
com
mand,
tracking,
and telemetry;that
is,
they
are
part
of
the
systems
for turning
Relay experiments
on
and
off,for
tracking
the
satellite, and
for
ac
quiringand
sending
to
earth
data
on
component
behaviorand
on
radiation
inspace.
The
satellite's
eight
sides
are encrusted
with
a
total
of
8,215
solar
cells.
These
are
photoelectric
cells
that
absorb
sunlight
andconvert
it
to
electricity
forcharging
three nickel
cadmiumbatteries.
Relay's
power supply
is
designed
to
permitcommunicationsexperiments
aggregating
100
minutes
per
day without
excessive
drain
on,
and
consequent
damage
to,the batteries.Relay's
orbit
passes
through
zones
of
intense
radiation including part
of
the
Van
Allen
Radia
tion
Region.
Radiation
can
damage
solar
cells,
reducing
their
ability
to
convertsunlight
into
electricity.
Except
for
some
left
unprotected
for
experimental
purposes,
all
of
Relay's
solar
cells
areshielded
against radiation
by
a
thin
layer of
quartz.
Relay
has
two receiving,
amplifying,
and
transmitting
systems
(transponders)
for
communi
cation experiments
andtwo
command
systems
by
which
the
transponder
can be
turned
off
and
on
from the
ground.
This
duplication
is
one way
of
increasing
the chances
that
a
spacecraft
will
do
its
job.
If
a
part
fails, another
is
ready
to
su
bstitute
forit
.
Relay
is
designed
to
handle
a
single
television
broadcast,
12
simultaneous
two-way
telephone
calls,
or their equivalent
in
data,
teletype,
and

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