Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
NASA Facts VSTOL Aircraft

NASA Facts VSTOL Aircraft

Ratings: (0)|Views: 149 |Likes:
Published by Bob Andrepont

More info:

Published by: Bob Andrepont on Jun 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

10/26/2012

pdf

text

original

 
VOl.
II,
C-142
Tri-Service transport (one-ninth scale model)
Aircraft capable of landing and taking offvertically, or with a relatively short ground run,are being studied by the National Aeronauticsand Space Administration in a program called
V/STOL
(pronounced VEE-stoll), for vertical orshort take-off and landing.
The
helicopter
is
an example
of
such aircraft;ability to operate from a small airfield
is
thebasic advantage.
NASA’s
role in the program consists of basicand exploratory research on behalf of the mili-tary and the aircraft industry, and applied re-search for development of specific
V/STOL
types.
A
vertical take-off and landing aircraft
(VTOL)
is
defined as one that takes
off
vertically,changes from hovering to forward flight, cruisesto its destination, then hovers again and landsvertically.
A
short take-off and landing aircraft
(STOL)
is
one that takes off and lands-cruising to
its
desti-nation meanwhile-from a relatively short runwaythat one expert has defined as a 5OO-foot runwaywith a 50-foot-high obstacle at each end.Scores of possible V/STOL configurations havebeen studied in this country, and development ofseveral of them has been carried as far as theflight-test stage. One way to classify the pos-sible types,
so
that they may
be
compared,
is
bytheir method
of
converting from vertical (or nearvertical) flight to horizontal flight.The
first
method
is
to
TILT
THE
ENTIRE
AIRCRAFT.
The second method
is
to
TILT
ONLY
THE
ROTORS,
PROPELLERS,
OR
OTHER
SOURCES
OF
THRUST.
The wings,
if
any, can
be
tiltedalso, but the fuselage and the pilot remain in thesame position as when the aircraft took
off.
 
Page
2
Vol.
II,
No.
3
Five
VTOL
concepts:
(A)
tilt rotor,
(B)
eflected slipstream,
(C)
tilt duct,
(D)
deflected jet, and
(E)
tilt wing.
The third
is
to DEFLECT THE
THRUST;
the air
>
swept back by the propellers or exhausts
is
bentdownward, with wing flaps, for example, ornozzles.The fourth
is
DUAL PROPULSlON-to have
dif-
ferent engines (or sets of engines), one for liftingand lowering the aircraft and one for driving
it
horizontally.Another way to classify
V/STOL
aircraft
is
ac-cording to the source of thrust.
The
source ofthrust of a particular aircraft may be-(
1
)
rotor(s),
(2)
propeller(s),
(3)
ducted fan(s),
(4)
jet ex-haust(s),
(5)
a
combination of some
of
thesemeans.Aircraft have been considered that would paireach of these source-of-thrust possibilities withthe previously mentioned methods of conversionfrom vertical to horizontal flight. Before a
dis-
cussion of some of the particular types, however,let’s glance briefly at some history of
V/STOL
re-search in this country.In
1921,
Dr. Albert
F.
Zahm patented a ma-chine
with
a special wing and flap arrangement todeflect downward the propeller slipstream (the airmoved by the propeller). Here note the two re-quirements for vertical take-off: first, the propellerslipstream must be directed straight down, to pro-duce the vertical thrust to
lift
the airplane straightup; and second,
this
upward thrust must begreater than the weight of the aircraft.
It
metthe first of these requirements, but not the second.There was then no airplane engine powerfulenough to produce a deflected propeller
slip-
stream that could lift the aircraft. And becauseduring the
1920’s
and early
30’s
no
big
improve-ments in engine power were expected, designers
)*
Dr. Zahm’s airplane was never built.and inventors in that period put aside anythoughts of tilt-wing propeller
V/STOL
aircraftand turned to the autogiro and the helicopter,whose rotors could
lift
aircraft powered by theengines then on hand or expected.A rotor, in general,
is
a propeller that
is
largerthan usual. Its blades are longer and broader.
Its
lift varies with how much air
it
can move andhow fast it can move
this
air. The same amountof lift can result whether you move a large massof air at a low speed or a small mass of air at ahigh speed.
BUT
the power consumed varies with
(1
themass and
(2)
he SQUARE of the
speed.
So,
byreducing the speed of the air and proportionatelyincreasing the mass of the air being moved, thedesigner was able to get
his
airplane up with theengines then in existence.
This
is
why the first
V/STOL
aircraft-the autogiros and the heli-copters-had large, slow-moving rotors.In the late
1940’s
the introductionof turbo-prop and turbojet engines prompted another lookat
V/STOL
airplanes other than helicopters.
V/STOL
research by
the
National AdvisoryCommittee for Aeronautics (predecessor of
NASA)
began in
1950
with wind-tunnel testsand flight research with small-scale models, andit has increased rather steadily since.
NASA’s
two largest wind tunnels-one the
40-
y
80-
foot tunnel at Ames Research Center in Cali-fornia and the other the full-scale tunnel atLangley Research Center in Virginia-are nowdevoted largely to
VTOL
studies. Anotherfacility
is
the 17-foot test section built into oneof the Langley
7-
y 10-foot tunnels.
 
Vol.
II,
No.
3
HELICOPTERS
Page
3
A
substantial part of NASA’s
V/STOL
work
is
on helicopters.
At
present the helicopter
is
theonly operational
VTOL
aircraft, at least in theUnited States.Because of
its
relatively low slipstream veloci-ties and hovering power requirements, the heli-copter
is
best suited for missions requiring lengthyperiods of hovering-such as rescue work involv-ing the lifting of people from the ground in theopen air, and for operation from unpreparedbases, where higher slipstream velocities causetrouble from ground erosion and flying dust anddebris.
,
For this reason the helicopter will probably con-tinue to be the best vehicle for certain missions inspite of the disadvantages inherent in
its
design.Among these disadvantages are (1 mechanicalcomplexity,
(2)
higher maintenance costs,
(3)
vi-under certain weather conditions,
(5)
nefficientcruising operation, and
(6)
slow cruising speed
(less
than
200
m.p.h. maximum).
NASA
is
doing research to reduce helicoptervibration and maintenance problems and to im-prove the flying qualities. One study at Langleydeals with factors involved during the transitionfrom steep approach
to
vertical touchdown andduring blind hovering with the Vertol YHCl
A,
a
large modern twin-turbine helicopter.
This
air-craft
is
fitted with variable-stability equipment,which allows wide variations in flying and han-dling characteristics, and with special navigationand pilot-display instruments that should producebration and noise,
(4)
difficult flying qualities
0
Vertol
YHCIA
helicopter.McDonnell XV-1 compound helicopter.
significant data on blind or instrument-flight con-ditions-for other
V/STOL
aircraft as well ashelicopters.
0
The “compound” helicopter, which has a con-ventional fixed wing to improve
its
cruise per-formance and a separate propulsion unit for for-ward
flight,
is
again receiving serious attentionfrom the
U.S.
military services. The concept hasbeen flight evaluated in the past with the McDon-nell XV-1 and the Fairey Rotodyne vehicles, and
Is
being studied currently by Bell Helicopter with amodified UH-
1
helicopter.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->