deflected jet, and
to DEFLECT THE
swept back by the propellers or exhausts
bentdownward, with wing flaps, for example, ornozzles.The fourth
DUAL PROPULSlON-to have
ferent engines (or sets of engines), one for liftingand lowering the aircraft and one for driving
horizontally.Another way to classify
ac-cording to the source of thrust.
source ofthrust of a particular aircraft may be-(
combination of some
thesemeans.Aircraft have been considered that would paireach of these source-of-thrust possibilities withthe previously mentioned methods of conversionfrom vertical to horizontal flight. Before a
cussion of some of the particular types, however,let’s glance briefly at some history of
re-search in this country.In
Zahm patented a ma-chine
a special wing and flap arrangement todeflect downward the propeller slipstream (the airmoved by the propeller). Here note the two re-quirements for vertical take-off: first, the propellerslipstream must be directed straight down, to pro-duce the vertical thrust to
the airplane straightup; and second,
upward thrust must begreater than the weight of the aircraft.
metthe first of these requirements, but not the second.There was then no airplane engine powerfulenough to produce a deflected propeller
stream that could lift the aircraft. And becauseduring the
improve-ments in engine power were expected, designers
Dr. Zahm’s airplane was never built.and inventors in that period put aside anythoughts of tilt-wing propeller
aircraftand turned to the autogiro and the helicopter,whose rotors could
aircraft powered by theengines then on hand or expected.A rotor, in general,
a propeller that
largerthan usual. Its blades are longer and broader.
lift varies with how much air
can move andhow fast it can move
air. The same amountof lift can result whether you move a large massof air at a low speed or a small mass of air at ahigh speed.
the power consumed varies with
he SQUARE of the
byreducing the speed of the air and proportionatelyincreasing the mass of the air being moved, thedesigner was able to get
airplane up with theengines then in existence.
why the first
aircraft-the autogiros and the heli-copters-had large, slow-moving rotors.In the late
the introductionof turbo-prop and turbojet engines prompted another lookat
airplanes other than helicopters.
National AdvisoryCommittee for Aeronautics (predecessor of
with wind-tunnel testsand flight research with small-scale models, andit has increased rather steadily since.
two largest wind tunnels-one the
foot tunnel at Ames Research Center in Cali-fornia and the other the full-scale tunnel atLangley Research Center in Virginia-are nowdevoted largely to
the 17-foot test section built into oneof the Langley
y 10-foot tunnels.