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Design of Concrete Cantilever Retaining Wall

Design of Concrete Cantilever Retaining Wall



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Published by: hendra_5 on Jun 04, 2011
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Design of concrete cantilever retaining wall
IntroductionCommon failure of retaining wall:
 1. Overturning.2. Sliding.3. Bearing capacity.4. Bending or shear failure of stem.5. Bending or shear failure of heel.6. Bending or shear failure of toe.7. Bending or shear failure of key.All items above should be considered in designing a retaining wall.There is also a rotational stability failure that is not normally checked except when a retaining wall is locatedon a slope.Design procedure for cantilever retaining wall:
Stability analysis
 1. Check factor of safety against overturning.2. Check soil bearing pressure.3. Check factor of safety against sliding.
Reinforced concrete design
 1. Check thickness of stem for shear stress.2. Design stem reinforcement for bending.3. Check thickness of heel for shear stress.4. Design heel reinforcement.5. Check shear stress for toe when the toe is long.6. Design toe reinforcement for bending.7. Check shear stress in key when key is deep and narrow.8. Design key reinforcement for bending.
 Stability analysis of retaining wall
Check factor of safety against overturning. Check soil bearing pressure. Check factor of safety against sliding. Example 5.1 Cantilever retaining wall with horizontal backfill, no surcharge Example 5.2 Cantilever retaining wall with horizontal backfill, surcharge, and key Example 5.3 Cantilever retaining wall with slope backfill (Free excel file for wall stabilty, e-mailwebmaster@ce-ref.com)Important Notes:1. Lateral earth pressure is normally calculated based on Rankine or Coulomb’s theories. Lateral earthpressure is assumed distributed triangularly. The location of resultant is at 1/3 of height. If there issurcharge, lateral earth pressure from surcharge is distributed uniformly. The resultant is at ½ ofheight. The lateral earth pressure is calculated at the edge of heel.2. The rotating point for overturning is normally assumed at bottom of toe. The height of soil used tocalculate lateral earth pressure should be from top of earth to the bottom of footing.3. Elements that resisting overturning are weight of stem, weight of footing, weight of soil above footing.If there is a surcharge, the weight of surcharge can also be considered.4. The factor of safety against overturning is resisting moment divided by overturning moment.Acceptable factor of safety is between 1.5 to 2.5. The driving force that causes retaining wall to slide is the lateral earth pressure from soil andsurcharge. The forces that resist sliding are passive pressure at toe, the friction at the base of thefooting; and the passive pressure against the key if used.6. The factor of safety against sliding is the total resisting force divided by total driving force.Acceptable factor of safety is between 1.5 to 2.Overturning:The factor of safety against overturning is calculated as1. The overturning moment is calculated asWhere  is unit weight of soil,
is active pressure coefficient, and H is the height from top of earthto bottom of footing, q is surcharge.2. The resisting moment is calculated as
,W ,W ,W ,W  
are weight of stem, footing, earth, key and surcharge,
 aredistance from the center of stem, footing, earth, key, and surcharge to the rotation point at toe.3. The factor of safety against over turning is calculated asBearing pressure:The bearing pressure is calculated as follows1. The center of the total weight from the edge of toe isWhere W is total weight of retaining wall including stem, footing, earth and surcharge.2. The eccentricity, e = B/2-X3. If e B/6, the maximum and minimum footing pressure is calculated asWhere, Q
, Q
are maximum and minimum footing pressure, B is the width of footing.4. If e > B/6, Q
is zero,5. Q
should be less than allowable soil bearing capacity of footing soil.Sliding:1. The driving force for sliding is calculated as2. The friction resisting force at the base of footing is calculated aswhere is friction coefficient between concrete and soil.  is often taken as tan (2/3 ).  is internalfriction of the soil.

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