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Published by: AWAIS on Jun 04, 2011
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40. Desalination
Desalination describes a range of processes which are used to reduce the amount of dissolvedsolids in water. Dissolved solids are often referred to as total dissolved solids (TDS), and aremeasured in mg/l. As a means of producing potable water, desalination is usually an expensiveoption. It is often associated with electricity generation plants, from which both electricity and wasteheat are available. This Technical Brief outlines the processes and techniques involved, but alsopresents low-cost methods of desalination by distillation.
Figure 1. Osmosis and reverse osmosis
Desalination is used to produce potable water from watersources containing dissolved chemicals, and is mostoften used when water sources are salty; producing freshwater from sea water or brackish water. Natural watersmay be classified approximately according to their TDSvalues:
Reverse osmosis
Osmosis is a technique which plants use to absorb waterfrom the soil and to transport the water up the stem to allparts of the plant. Dilute and more concentrated solutionsare separated by a semi-permeable membrane, whichacts like a very fine filter. The semi-permeable membraneallows water molecules to pass, but prevents the move-ment of salt or other dissolved chemical molecules.If two saline solutions (or water and a saline solution) areseparated only by a semi-permeable membrane, therewill be a transfer of water through the membrane to themore concentrated saline solution. The passage of waterwill continue until a stable condition is reached, with thedifference of liquid levels across the semi-permeablemembrane being referred to as the osmotic pressure.The osmotic pressure varies with temperature and theconcentrations of the two solutions (Figure 1a).By applying pressure (in excess of the osmotic pressure)to the salt-water solution, the process can be reversed,and water molecules from the salt-water solution can beforced through to the other side of the semi-permeablemembrane (Figure 1b).
Directionof waterSalt water WaterSemi-permeablemembraneDirectionof waterSalt water WaterSemi-permeablemembraneApplied pressure
(a) Osmosis(b) Reverse osmosis
Type of waterTDS value (mg/l)
Sweet waters0-1000Brackish waters1000-5000Moderately saline waters5000-10 000Severely saline waters10 000-30 000SeawaterMore than 30 000
The main application of desalination techniques is theproduction of fresh water on ships, islands, and in thecoastal regions of some very arid Middle Eastern countries.The water that is produced may be so pure that consumersdo not like the lack of taste, and small quantities of salt watermay then be added to improve the flavour.There are several methods of water desalination. Themost appropriate method can be selected on the basis ofthe TDS value of the raw water.
ProcessTDS value (mg/l)
Ion exchange(not described here)500-1000Electrodialysis(not described here)500-3000Reverse osmosis(standard membranes)500-5000Reverse osmosis(high-resistance membranes)Over 5000DistillationOver 30 000
Of the desalination methods available, the two main onesare:
reverse osmosis;
distillation followed by condensation.
The flow of water through the semi-permeable membraneis very slow, so a large area of membrane is needed. Themembrane is easily torn, and needs to be supportedcarefully. Membranes are frequently wrapped into aspiral, or formed into bundles of tubes which are sealedat one end (Figure 2). Reverse osmosis installations
Figure 3. Schematic diagram of a reverse osmosis plant for sea water
require further refinements in order to prevent damage orblockage and to operate successfully. The salt waterneeds to be filtered first to remove particles which mightdamage the membranes, and chemical additives may beneeded to control the pH and to minimize the depositionof salt on the membrane surface (Figure 3).
Figure 2. Reverse osmosis: Membrane support techniques
(a) Spiral-wound sheet(b) Bundled hollow fibres
Multi-mediafiltersAcid for pHcorrectionScale controladditiveFirst stageH.P. pumpsFirst stagereverse osmosisRejectbrineBuffertankSecond stageH.P. pumpsSecond stage reverse osmosisSecond stage concentraterecycleBypass second stageDecarbonatorTostorageHypochloriteLime for pHcorrectionSea waterfeed to plantCartridgefiltersPermeatepump
WaterBrineBundle oftubularmembranesSpiral-woundmembraneSealed at one endSolid pipeCollection tubeSaline waterWaterBrineSaline waterApproximately 100mmdiameterPipes may beseveral metres long
The collection of water by distillation and condensation isa survival technique which can be used to collect smallquantities of water from the ground. A hole is dug in theground, and a cup or bowl is placed in the bottom of thehole. A sheet of plastic is stretched across the hole, itsedges are weighted with soil to hold it in place, and asmall stone is placed in the centre. Water evaporatesfrom the soil, condenses on the underside of the plasticsheet, and collects in the cup or bowl (Figure 4). Solarenergy can be used to evaporate water from salt waterfor household or community water supplies by construct-ing sealed units covered with glass (Figure 5). There areproblems with these units: growth of algae on the under-side of the glass sheet must be controlled, and the unitmust be effectively sealed.
Figure 5. Section of a typical solar stillFigure 4. Simple distillation and condensation
StoneCondensedwater dropletBowlPlastic sheet
Black heat-absorbent surfaceOutletGlass coverHeated by the sun, waterevaporates and condensesDistilled watergutterSunInletOverflowCondensed droplets flow alongthe inside ofthe glass cover andcollect in the gutter.

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