available information, acting on behalf of theirhuman counterparts .In this paper, we discuss the basic ideaof the semantic Web and describe a design anddevelopment methodology for a domain specificsemantic Web search engine based on ontologymatching w
not only overcomes theproblem of knowledge overhead but alsosupports complex queries. Further, it is able toproduce exact answers that in one hand satisfyuser queries and on the other hand are self-explanatory and understandable by end users.
2. SEMANTIC WEB SEARCH ENGINE2.1 The working of a regular search engine
For most internet users, a search engine is thestarting point of finding desired information inthe Web. The most common form of text searchused by the majority of popular search engineson the Web is
keyword based search
they do their text query and retrieval usingkeywords. The working of any regular searchengine may be summarized as follows:
Search engine searches its enormousdatabase for the keyword - entered bythe user (after pressing the searchbutton.)
Every engine has its own collectionsystem to fill its database.
Indexing system is used to organize thedatabase - permits faster searching
Returns a list of hit -includes relevant(as well as irrelevant) pagesThis keyword based search technique givesrise to several problems listed as follows:
The Web is growing much faster thanany present-technology search enginecan possibly index. In 2006, some usersfound major search-engines becameslower to index new Web-pages.
Keyword searches have a tough timedistinguishing between words that arespelled the same way, but meansomething
different. This often resultsin hits that are
completely irrelevant tothe query.
Some search engines also have troublewith stemming, i.e., if the word "big,"is entered, should it return a hit on theword, "bigger?" What about singularand plural words? What about verbtenses that differ from the wordsomeone entered by only an "s," or an"ed"?
Search engines also cannot return hitson keywords that mean the same, butare not actually entered in the query. Aquery on heart disease would not returna document that used the word "cardiac"instead of "heart."
Users are returned thousands to millionsof Web pages in return of their queries,of which majority prove to be irrelevantto the query submitted and is impossiblefor any user to go through.In view of the above mentioned problems,come up the concept of semantic Web andsemantic Web search engines.
Semantic Web and Semantic SearchEngine
“The Semantic Web is the representation of dataon the World Wide Web. It is a collaborativeeffort led by W3C with participation from a largenumber of researchers and industrial partners. Itis based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF), which integrates a variety of applicationsusing XML for syntax and URIs for naming.” –W3C Semantic Web. The Semantic Web is aframework that allows publishing, sharing, andreusing data and knowledge on the Web andacross applications, enterprises, and communityboundaries .
Currently, the Semantic Web,consisting of Semantic Web documents typicallyencoded in the languages RDF and OWL, isessentially a Web universe parallel to the Web of HTML documents . Knowledge encoded inSemantic Web languages such as RDF differsfrom both the largely unstructured free textfound on most Web pages and the highlystructured information found in databases. Suchsemi-structured information requires using acombination of techniques for effective indexingand retrieval. RDF and the Web OntologyLanguage (OWL) which are ontology basedprocedures or representing knowledge on theWeb, introduce aspects beyond those used inordinary XML, allowing users to define terms