|Views: 472|Likes: 1

Published by ijcsis

In this paper, we propose a Minimum Bit Error Rate (MBER) beamforming combined with Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) according to the number of antenna array. A class of adaptive beamforming algorithm has been proposed based on minimizing the BER cost function directly. Consequently, MBER beamforming is capable of providing significant performance gains in terms of a reduced BER. The beamforming weights of the combined system are optimized in such a way that the virtual channel coefficients corresponding to STBC-encoded data streams, seen at the receiver, are guaranteed to be uncorrelated. Therefore the promised achievable diversity order by conventional system with STBC can be obtained completely. Combined MBER beamforming with STBC single array performance measured by BER is compared under the condition of direction of arrival (DOA) and signal-to-noise ratio (S+R). The numerical simulation results of the proposed technique show that this minimum BER (MBER) approach utilizes the antenna array elements more intelligently and have a performance dependent of DOA and angular spread (AS).

In this paper, we propose a Minimum Bit Error Rate (MBER) beamforming combined with Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) according to the number of antenna array. A class of adaptive beamforming algorithm has been proposed based on minimizing the BER cost function directly. Consequently, MBER beamforming is capable of providing significant performance gains in terms of a reduced BER. The beamforming weights of the combined system are optimized in such a way that the virtual channel coefficients corresponding to STBC-encoded data streams, seen at the receiver, are guaranteed to be uncorrelated. Therefore the promised achievable diversity order by conventional system with STBC can be obtained completely. Combined MBER beamforming with STBC single array performance measured by BER is compared under the condition of direction of arrival (DOA) and signal-to-noise ratio (S+R). The numerical simulation results of the proposed technique show that this minimum BER (MBER) approach utilizes the antenna array elements more intelligently and have a performance dependent of DOA and angular spread (AS).

See More

See less

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, o. 5, May 2011

Minimum Bit Error Rate Beamforming Combined with Space-Time Block Coding using Double Antenna Array Group

Said Elnoubi

Electrical of EngineeringAlexandria UniversityAlexandria, Egyptsaidelnoubi@hotmail.com

Waleed Abdallah

Tech. and App. Sc. ProgramAl-Quds Open University,Jerusalem, Palestine wsalos@qou.edu

Mohamed M. M. Omar

Elect. & Comm. Eng.AAST, Abukir Alexandria, Egyptmohammad_yosef@hotmail.com

Abstract

—

In this paper, we propose a Minimum Bit Error Rate(MBER) beamforming combined with Space-Time Block Coding(STBC) according to the number of antenna array. A class of adaptive beamforming algorithm has been proposed based onminimizing the BER cost function directly. Consequently, MBER beamforming is capable of providing significant performancegains in terms of a reduced BER. The beamforming weights of the combined system are optimized in such a way that the virtualchannel coefficients corresponding to STBC-encoded datastreams, seen at the receiver, are guaranteed to be uncorrelated.Therefore the promised achievable diversity order byconventional system with STBC can be obtained completely.Combined MBER beamforming with STBC single arrayperformance measured by BER is compared under the conditionof direction of arrival (DOA) and signal-to-noise ratio (SR). Thenumerical simulation results of the proposed technique show thatthis minimum BER (MBER) approach utilizes the antenna arrayelements more intelligently and have a performance dependent of DOA and angular spread (AS).

Keywords-MBER beamforming; STBC; DOA; angular spread;adaptive antenna array

I.

I

NTRODUCTION

The growing demand for wireless high-speed datatransmission in applications such as wireless web browsing,file downloading, wireless multimedia transmission,…, etc.,will increase requirements for downlink throughput andquality of service (QoS) significantly. But multipath fading isone of the major impairments limiting wirelesscommunication systems in performance and capacity. Lots of new technologies such as smart antenna and transmit diversityhave been proposed [1]. Those two technologies have thesame features in the view of requiring the multiple antennaelements, but have the contradictive requirement for antennaelement spacing.Adaptive beamforming can separate signals transmitted in thesame carrier frequency, provided that they are separated in thespatial domain. A beamformer combines the signal received by the different element of an antenna array to form a singleoutput. This has been achieved by many criteria such asmaximizing SNR and minimizing the mean square error (MMSE) between the desired output and actual array output.This principle has its roots in the traditional beamformingemployed in sonar and radar systems.For a communication system, it is the achievable BER, not theMSE performance that really matters. Ideally, the systemdesign should be based directly on minimizing the BER, rather than the MSE. For applications to single-user channelequalization and multi-user detection, it has been shown thatthe MMSE solution can in certain situations be distinctlyinferior in comparison to the MBER solution, and severaladaptive implementations of the MBER solution have beenstudied in the literature [3]. This contribution derives a noveladaptive beamforming technique based on directly minimizingthe system’s BER rather than the MSE. In [3], an adaptiveimplementation of the MBER beamforming technique isinvestigated.STBC and beamforming techniques are two emergingtechnologies that can be employed at base station withmultiple antennas to provide transmit diversity and beamforming gain to increase SNR of the downlink. In [1] and[2], the idea of the combination of two schemes to get the fulldiversity order as well as beamforming gain is proposed.There, the beamforming gain is achieved by maximizingreceived SNR at the receiver. It has shown real promise for increasing capacity and coverage and for mitigating multipath propagation of mobile radio communication systems.In this paper, the MBER beamforming combined with STBCis proposed using single antenna array. This new technique iscompared with the maximum SNR beamforming combinedwith STBC in array gain versus DOA center and BER versusDOA center and SNR performances. The simulation resultsshow that the system's BER performance of the proposedalgorithm is better than that investigated in [1], [2].This paper is organized as follows. First, the combined beamforming with STBC single array is illustrated in SectionII. Then the MBER beamforming algorithm is introduced inSection III. The combined MBER beamforming with STBCdouble array is presented in Section IV. In Section V,simulation results are conducted to evaluate the performance of

Identify applicable sponsor/s here.

(sponsors)

1http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, o. 5, May 2011

the proposed scheme, the combined MBER beamforming withSTBC single and double arrays, and compared with the performance of the combined maximum SNR with STBCsingle and double arrays followed by the conclusion in SectionVI.II.

C

OMBINED

B

EMNFORMING

W

ITH

S

PACE

T

IME

B

LOCK

C

ODE

S

INGLE

A

RRAY

A.

System Model

Fig. 1 shows the system employing STBC to combine with beamforming technique using single array [1-2]. The signal to be transmitted,)(

n s

,

n

≤≤

1

is first coded using a STBCencoder, yielding two branch outputs as)(

1

n s

and)(

2

n s

,where

is the number of transmitted bit sequences. They arethen passed into two transmit beamformers

1

w

and

2

w

,respectively. At different time, they are simply added andtransmitted as

22111

sw sw x

H H

⋅+⋅=

(1)

*12*212

)(

sw sw x

H H

⋅+−⋅=

(2)where

i

w

is the weight vector of the

i

th

beamformer and

( )

H

.

is the Hermitian.

11

x

12

x

M

x

1

s

1

s

2

s

1

w

2

w

),(

11

θ

h

),(

22

θ

h

Figure 1. Combined beamforming with STBC using single array.

Suppose the physical channel consists of

L

spatially separated paths, whose fading coefficients and DOAs are denoted as

),(

l l

h

θ

for

Ll

...1

=

. If the maximum time delay relative tothe first arrived path is smaller than the symbol interval, a flatfading channel is observed and the instantaneous channelresponse can be expressed as

)()exp()(

11

l Ll Ll l l l l

aah H

θ φ α θ

∑ ∑

= =

⋅=⋅=

(3)where

l

α

and

l

φ

are the fading amplitude and phase. For M-element uniform linear array (ULA) with spacing

d

, thedownlink steering vector can be expressed as

T d M jd j
l

l l

eea

]...,1[)(

/)sin()1(2/)sin(2

λ θ π λ θ π

θ

−

=

(4)So the received signal at the receiver is given by

122111

)(

η

+⋅⋅+⋅⋅==

s H w s H wt r r

H H

(5)

212*212

)()()(

η

+⋅⋅+−⋅⋅=+=

∗

s H w s H wT t r r

H H

(6)where

T

is the symbol duration,

21

and

r r

are the receivedsignals at time

t

and

T t

+

,

21

and

η η

are complex-valued whiteGaussian noise having a zero mean and a variance of

2

2

η

σ

.

B.

Detection

In order to get maximal SNR, [1] tried to maximize (7) subjectto (8) based on conventional STBC detection

⋅+⋅

2221

H w H w E

H H

(7)

1

2211

=⋅+⋅

wwww

H H

(8)The downlink channel covariance matrix (DCCM)][

H H E

H

is well analyzed in [4] for TDD and FDD system.For simplicity set

L

=2, then equations (5) and (6) can berewritten as

1221122111

)](.)().[.(

η θ θ

++⋅+⋅=

ahah sw swr

H H

(9)

22211
*12*212

)](.)().][.()([(

η θ θ

++⋅+−⋅=

ahah sw swr

H H

(10)In [2], at receiver the Alamouti STBC (2Tx, 1Rx) [5] detectionis used

*221*11

~

r hr h s

⋅+⋅=

(11)and the beamforming weight vectors

1

w

and

2

w

are set to be

)(.21,)(21

2211

θ θ

aM waM w

=⋅=

(12)which are maximizing the receiving SNR at the receiver.The transmit beamforming weight are optimized bymaximizing the cost function, but increasing the computingcomplexity [2].III.

M

BER

B

EAMFORMING

W

ITH

S

TBC

S

OLUTION

It is assumed that the system supports

L

users, each user transmits signal on the same carrier frequency.

The linear antenna array considered consists of

M

uniformly spacedelements and the signal received by the

M

-element antennaarray are given by

=

)(:)()()](),....,(),([)(

2121

n sn sn saaan x

L L

θ θ θ

(13)where

i

s

is the signal to be transmitted for

i

th

user.)(

1

n s

isassumed to be the desired user and the rest of the sources arethe interfering users. To determine the MBER beamformingweight vector

w

, we start by forming its BER cost function[6]. The conditional probability density function (pdf) given by

∑

=

−−=

n R s s

n yn s y
y P

12212

2))())(sgn((
exp21)(

η η

σ πσ

(14)is the best indicator of a beamformer's BER performance,where

)()(

n xwn y

H

=

(15))())(sgn()(

1

n yn sn y

R s

=

(16)sgn(.) denotes the sign function,

)}(Re{)(

n yn y

R

=

is the real part of the beamformer output y(n) and

)(

n y

s

is an error indicator for the binary decision, i.e., if it is positive, then we

2http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, o. 5, May 2011

have a correct decision, else if it is negative, then an error occurred.Hence, the error probability of the beamformer

w

, the BER cost function, is given by

∑

=

=

nn E

w g Q w P

1

))((1)(

(17)where Q(.) is the Gaussian error function given by

∫

∞

−=

u

dvvuQ

)2exp(21)(

2

π

(18)and

η

σ

)())(sgn(
)(

1

n yn s
w g

Rn

=

(19)The MBER beamforming solution is then defined as

)(minarg

w P w

E wMBER

=

(20)The gradient of

)(

w P

E

with respect to

w

can be shown to be

( )

)()()(sgn(
2))((exp221)()(

11222

n xwn yn s
n y ww P w P

R n R E E

−⋅ −⋅=∂∂=∇

∑

=

η η

σ πσ

(21)The following simplified conjugate gradient algorithm [3] provides an efficient means of finding a MBER solution.In this paper, we will demonstrate from the simulation resultsthat the system's BER performance can be improved byapplying the MBER solutions instead of the beamformingweight vectors given by (11) combined with STBC.The proposed MBER algorithm is summarized in Table I. Weinitialize the main algorithm parameters. The algorithmconsists of one main loop. This loop is repeated until the normof the gradient vector is sufficiently small.

1)

Use the abbreviation “Fig. 1”, even at the beginning of asentence.

TABLE I. S

UMMARY

O

F

T

HE

M

BER

A

LGORITHM

Initialization

)0(/)0()0(

x xw

=

,

01.,8.

==

β µ

(

typically,

β

can be set to the

machine accuracy). The adaptive gain

µ

and a termination scalar

β

are the two algorithmic parameters that have to be setappropriately to ensure a fast convergence rate and small steady-state BER.

•

Calculate variance of noise.

•

Calculate the gradient vector form (21).

•

Complexity of (21) is O (

M

) for one bit [6].

•

Initialize the search direction ,

E

P D

−∇=

,

i=1

;

E

P

∇

)(

β

<∇

E

P while

•

Update the beamformer weight

Diwiw

µ

+=+

)()1(

•

Normalize the solution

)1(/)1()1(

++=+

iwiwiw

•

Calculate the cost function BER and the gradient vector

( )

)()()(sgn(
2))((exp221)()(

11222

n xwn yn s
n y ww P w P

R n R E E

−⋅ −=∂∂=∇

∑

=

η η

σ πσ

Complexity is O () for one bit [6].

∑

=

=

nn E

w g Q w P

1

))((1)(

;

η

σ

)())(sgn(
)(

1

n yn s
w g

Rn

=

;

•

Calculate the search direction from

22

))(())1((

iw P iw P

E E i

∇+∇=

φ

;

))1(()()1(

+∇−=+

iw P i Di D

E i

φ

;

•

Increment the iteration number

1

+=

ii

•

end of while loop

Stop :

)(

iw

is the solution of the MBER weight vector.To determine the MBER beamforming weight vector for another user, we can apply the algorithm stated in Table. I for choosing

)(

2

n s

as desired user and the remainder of thesources are considered to be interfering sources.As shown in [1], the equation denoted as array gain is given by

222212

wwww

H H

⋅⋅=

ε

(22)Fig.2 shows the array gain depends on DOA (center) andangular spread (AS). At

o

10AS case, as DOA (center) are

o

0

and

o

60

,

ε

are equal to 0.378 and 0.799 for the maximumSNR and are equal to 0.39 and 0.843 for the proposedalgorithm, respectively. It changes widely enough to affect the performance for two algorithms.

-60-40-200204060-60-50-40-30-20-100DOA (Center)

A r r a y g a i n ( d B )

AS=10

o

MinBER (1 iter.)AS=50

o

MinBER (1 iter.)AS=10

o

close-form Max-SNR [1]AS=50

o

close-form Max-SNR [1]

Figure 2. Array gain.

IV.

C

OMBINED

B

EAMFORMING

W

ITH

S

PACE

T

IME

B

LOCK

C

ODE

D

OUBLE

A

RRAY

For array gain will strongly affect the system detection performance, we find another scheme to minimize thedisadvantage.

3http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500