Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Analysis on Differential Router Buffer Size towards Network Congestion

Analysis on Differential Router Buffer Size towards Network Congestion

Ratings: (0)|Views: 129 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
Network resources are shared amongst a large number of users. Improper managing network traffic leads to congestion problem that degrades a network performance. It happens when the traffic exceeds the network capacity. In this research, we plan to observe the value of buffer size that contributes to network congestion. A simulation study by using OPNET Modeler 14.5 is conducted to achieve the purpose. A simple dumb-bell topology is used to observe several parameter such as number of packet dropped, retransmission count, end-to-end TCP delay, queuing delay and link utilization. The results show that the determination of buffer size based on Bandwidth-Delay Product (BDP) is still applicable for up to 500 users before network start to be congested. The symptom of near-congestion situation also being discussed corresponds to simulation results. Therefore, the buffer size needs to be determined to optimize the network performance based on our network topology. In future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the effect of other buffer size models such as Stanford Model and Tiny Buffer Model. In addition, the buffer size has to be determined for wireless environment later on.
Network resources are shared amongst a large number of users. Improper managing network traffic leads to congestion problem that degrades a network performance. It happens when the traffic exceeds the network capacity. In this research, we plan to observe the value of buffer size that contributes to network congestion. A simulation study by using OPNET Modeler 14.5 is conducted to achieve the purpose. A simple dumb-bell topology is used to observe several parameter such as number of packet dropped, retransmission count, end-to-end TCP delay, queuing delay and link utilization. The results show that the determination of buffer size based on Bandwidth-Delay Product (BDP) is still applicable for up to 500 users before network start to be congested. The symptom of near-congestion situation also being discussed corresponds to simulation results. Therefore, the buffer size needs to be determined to optimize the network performance based on our network topology. In future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the effect of other buffer size models such as Stanford Model and Tiny Buffer Model. In addition, the buffer size has to be determined for wireless environment later on.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Jun 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/05/2011

pdf

text

original

 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, 2011
Analysis on Differential Router Buffer Size towardsNetwork Congestion
A Simulation-based
Haniza N., Zulkiflee M., Abdul S.Shibgatullah, Shahrin S.
Faculty of Information and Communication TechnologyUniversiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Melaka, Malaysiahaniza@utem.edu.my, zulkiflee@utem.edu.my,
 
samad@utem.edu.my, shahrinsahib@utem.edu.my
 Abstract 
Network resources are shared amongst a largenumber of users. Improper managing network traffic leads tocongestion problem that degrades a network performance. Ithappens when the traffic exceeds the network capacity. Inthis research, we plan to observe the value of buffer size thatcontributes to network congestion. A simulation study byusing OPNET Modeler 14.5 is conducted to achieve thepurpose. A simple dumb-bell topology is used to observeseveral parameter such as number of packet dropped,retransmission count, end-to-end TCP delay, queuing delayand link utilization. The results show that the determinationof buffer size based on Bandwidth-Delay Product (BDP) isstill applicable for up to 500 users before network start to becongested. The symptom of near-congestion situation alsobeing discussed corresponds to simulation results. Therefore,the buffer size needs to be determined to optimize thenetwork performance based on our network topology. Infuture, the extension study will be carried out to investigatethe effect of other buffer size models such as Stanford Modeland Tiny Buffer Model. In addition, the buffer size has to bedetermined for wireless environment later on.
 Keywords
– OPNET, network congestion, bandwidth delayproduct, buffer size
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Router plays an important role in switching packet overa public network. A storage element called as buffer isresponsible to manage transient packets in a way of determining its next path to be taken and deciding whenpackets suppose being injected into network. Severalstudies [1-3] have agreed that the single biggest contributorto the uncertainty of Internet is coming from misbehaviorof router buffer per se. It introduces some queuing delayand delay-variance between flow transitions. In somecases, packets are potential to be lost whenever buffer isoverflow. Oppositely, it is wasteful and ineffective whenbuffer is underutilized. As a result, it shows somedegradation in the expected throughput rate.The main factor to increase the network performance isto seize the optimal size of router buffer. Currently, it is seteither a default value specified by the manufacturer or it isdetermined by the well known “Bandwidth-Delay Product”(BDP) principal that has been invented by [4]. This rule isaiming to keep a congested link as busy as possible andmaximize the throughput while packets in buffer were keptbusy by the outgoing link. The BDP buffer size is definedas an equal to the product of available data link’s capacityand its end-to-end delay at a bottleneck link. The end-to-end delay can be measured by Round-Trip Time (RTT) aspresented in Equation (1). The number of outstandingpackets (in-flight or unacknowledged) should not exceedsfrom TCP flow’s share of BDP value to avoid from packetdrop[5].
 BDP (bits) = Available Bandwidth (bits/sec) x RTT (sec)
(1)
 
In ideal case, the maximum packets carrying in apotential bottleneck link can be gain from a measurementof BDP_UB where there is no competing traffic. TheBDP_UB or Upper Bound is given in Equation (2) asstated below:
 BDP_UB (bits) = Total Bandwidth (bits/sec) x RTT (sec) (
2)
When applied in the context of the TCP protocol, thesize of window sliding should be large enough to ensurethat enough in-flight packets can put in congested link. Tocontrol the window size, TCP Congestion Avoidance usesAdditive Increase Multiple Decrease (AIMD) to probe thecurrent available bandwidth and react against overflowbuffer. The optimal congestion window size is expected tobe equal to BDP value; otherwise packet will start to queueand then drop when it “overshoots”.Today, several studies have been conducted to arguethe realistic of BDP such as Small buffer which alsoknown as Stanford Model [6] and Tiny Buffer Model [7].They keep try to reduce number of packets in bufferwithout loss in performance. Larger buffers have a badtradeoff where it increases queuing delay, increase round-trip time, and reduces load and drop probability comparedto small buffers which have higher drop probability [8].However, applications able to protect against packet droprather than recapture lost time.
13http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, 2011
The goal of this paper is to study the effectiveness of BDP on a simple network topology. This will bedemonstrated on a group of users from a range of 5 until1000 users. A simulation study is carried out with OPNETModeler 14.5 [9].The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section IIreviews the term of congestion from several aspects andbriefly explain about a well known buffer sizing model,BDP. Section III describes the network model andevaluation metrics for the simulation. In Section IV, weanalyses simulation results. Section V concludes thepresent paper and discusses some possible extensions of our work.II.
 
B
ACKGROUND
S
TUDY
 
 A.
 
Congestion
In [10] stated that network congestion was related tothe buffer space availability. For normal data transmission,the number of packet sent is proportional to the number of the packets delivered at destination. When it reaches atsaturation point and packets still being injected to network,a phenomenon called as Congestion Collapse will beoccurred. In this situation, the space buffer considerslimited and fully occupied. Thus, the incoming packetsneed to be dropped. As a result, a network performance hasbeen degraded.Most previous studies [11-13] emphasized that the keyof congestion in wired network is from network resourceslimitation. This limitation is including the characteristics of buffer, link bandwidth, processor times, servers, and forth.In a simple Mathematical definition, congestion occurredonce there are more demands exceed the available network resources as represented by Equation (3).
Demand > Available Resources (
3)
In [13], the congestion problem has been widelydefined from different perspectives including QueueTheory, Networking Theory, Network Operator and alsoEconomic aspect. However, it still emphasizes on buffer-oriented activity and capability to handle unexpectedincoming packets behavior. For instance, the access rateexceeds the service rate at intermediate nodes.
 B.
 
 Rule of thumb
Most routers in the backbone of the Internet have aBandwidth-Delay Product (BDP) of buffering for eachlink. This rule has been concluded based on anexperimental of a small number of long-lived TCP flows(eight TCP connections) on a 40 Mbps link. The selectionof TCP flows has been proved by [14, 15] that more than90 % of network traffics is TCP-based. Meanwhile, thevalue of BDP that more than 10
5
bits (12500 bytes) isapplicable for Long-Fat Network (LFN). In this case itrefers to Satellite Network [16].III.
 
M
ETHODOLOGY
 In this study, a proper methodology has been designedto get an expected output. This can be referred to thefollowing work flow depicts in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Methodology to be used
The first step demands for defining the value of theRound-Trip Time (RTT). This value can be set based on anormal data transmission where there no packets drop yet.To achieve it, the network needs to be configured based byusing a default setting that available in simulation tool.Then, the memory size at router need to be adjusted untillast configuration where there a small number of packetsdropped appear. Once RTT has successfully estimated, acurrent buffer size will be recorded and then need toadjusted base on BDP model.
14http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
The next step is to compare the ef buffer size as mentioned previously in Setwo scenarios created to represent Scenari
B
) and scenario 2 (Large Buffer
2xB
). Bobe tested for a different range of usersSeveral parameters will be observed anmore detail later. This simulation willseconds.IV.
 
E
XPERIMENTAL
A
PPR
 A.
 
 Network Environment Setup
In this section, a simple network topknown as dumb-bell topology was desigin Figure 2. This topology is a typicalresearcher to study congestion issues as stnetwork consists of three servers, Lintermediate routers and links interconthem. For both links between servers/LArate is given as 100 Mbps. Meanwhconnected using Point-to-point Protocol (PFor application configuration, TCP-baas File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Datbrowsing traffic (HTTP) were defined. Ttraffic definition that used in our simulatio 
TABLE 1 T
RAFFICS DEFINITION FOR SIM
Services Description
FTP Command Mix (Get/ToInter-Request Time (seconFile size (byDatabase Transaction Mix (Queries/ TransactiTransaction Interarrival Time (seconTransaction Size (bytHTTP HTTP SpecificatiPage Interarrival Time (seconFigure 2. Proposed system networ
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Compute
fect of differenttion I. There are1 (Small Bufferth scenarios willfrom 5 to 1000.d then analyzedbe run for 900
ACH
 logy which alsoed as illustratedmodel used byated in [17]. TheAN users, twonecting betweenusers, the dataile, routers arePP) 1.544 Mbps.ed services suchabase and webble 1 shows then.
ULATION
 
Value
t
 
al) :ds) :tes):50%3601000otaln) :ds) :es) :100%1232768ion :ds) :HTTP 1.110
 B.
 
 Evaluation Metrics
In this study, the behavthroughout Router B wasthat router maintains a spackets from the tail whenknown as Drop-tail whichscheme today. We collect snumber of packet droppedend TCP delay, queuing dselection based on possiblpicture of congestion ptopology.V.
 
S
IMULATIO
In this section, simulachanging buffer sizes opresented. Simulations wProduct (BDP) model. Basevalues of buffer sizes whicas the “small buffer” and
bytes
, referred as the “largecalculated to show the diff towards network congestion 
Figure 3: The influence buffer si
Figure 3 shows the iutilization and packet dropchanged. To be clear, tutilization meanwhile the bactivity. For both graphs, italways obtained high link compared to “large bufferesult, we divide users iGroup B and Group C as sh
010203040506070809010058102
   L   i   n    k   U   t   i    l   i   z   a   t   i   o   n    (   %    )
Numb
B = 2000 byteB = 4000 byteB = 2000 byteB = 4000 byte
 
r Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, 2011
ior of the packet once passingobserved. This study assumedingle FIFO queue, and dropthe queue is full. This action isis the most widely deployedome useful information such as, retransmission count, end-to-elay and link utilization. Thisoutput to represent a possiblehenomenon in the network 
N
R
ESULTS
&
 
A
NALYSIS
 tion result for the impact of n network performance wasre run for Bandwidth-Delayd on Equation (1), we used twoh are
B = 2000 bytes
, referredanother is given as
B = 4000
buffer”. This BDP values wererences buffer space availability.
ize to link utilization and packet drop
influence buffer size to link when the number of users N ise line graph represents link ar chart represents packet dropcan be seen that “small buffer”tilization and high packet drop”. To analyze this simulationto three grouping: Group A,own in Table 2.
 
05101520253035501005001000
 P  a c  k  e t   d  r  o p p e d   (   p a c  k  e t   s  /   s  e c  s  )  
r of users
ssss
15http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->