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A novel model for Synchronization and Positioning by using Neural Networks

A novel model for Synchronization and Positioning by using Neural Networks

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper by using a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a synchronization and positioning system is designed. Parameters that cause the system to be far from ideal condition such as S-Parameters, Noise Figure, IIP3, and Gain are considered that is one of the advantages of this system. In this stage this process is a little slow so by adding the neural network to the system the speed of synchronization is increased. By using the neural network the time needed to calculate the time difference of arrival (TDOA) is significantly decreases.
In this paper by using a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a synchronization and positioning system is designed. Parameters that cause the system to be far from ideal condition such as S-Parameters, Noise Figure, IIP3, and Gain are considered that is one of the advantages of this system. In this stage this process is a little slow so by adding the neural network to the system the speed of synchronization is increased. By using the neural network the time needed to calculate the time difference of arrival (TDOA) is significantly decreases.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 05, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
A Novel Model for Synchronization and Positioning by using Neural Networks
Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh*, Siamak Janianpour and Javad Haddadnia
Department of Electrical EngineeringSabzevar Tarbiat Moallem UniversitySabzevar, Khorasan Razavi, IranEmail: h.ghayoumizadeh@gmail.com*
 Abstract 
 — 
 
In this paper by using a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), asynchronization and positioning system is designed. Parametersthat cause the system to be far from ideal condition such asS-Parameters, Noise Figure, IIP3, and Gain are considered thatis one of the advantages of this system. In this stage this process isa little slow so by adding the neural network to the system thespeed of synchronization is increased. By using the neuralnetwork the time needed to calculate the time difference of arrival (TDOA) is significantly decreases.
 Keywords-component; Global Positioning System, Low-noiseamplifiers, Neural networks.
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 The TDOA approximation has so many differentapplications such as communication, electronic war andmedical engineering. Following some of these applications will be discussed. One of the most important applications of TDOAis in positioning of the transmitters. Nowadays radar and sonar systems are widely used with many different military or nonmilitary applications and their importance in security problems are so that they are parts of the strategic system of each country so to protect the radars; the usage of the passiveradar is become popular, increasingly[1]. Although in thesetype of radars the basic principle of the radars are dominant butthe transmitter of the radar is omitted from the system and byomitting the transmitter the receiver will become hidden fromthe sight of the enemies. The place of transmitter is one of themost important parameters that assign the duties of the radar.Another application of TDOA is in measurement andcontrolling the coolant current of the atomic reactors. Also itcan be used to localize the position of brain that controls thesimultaneity of the activities in epileptic patients. Further it isused in global positioning system (GPS), recently. Contrary toother methods, this system will not affect the normal operationof the satellites, because the time delay is calculated passively.Also there is no need to carry extra hardware in spaceships andthis will reduce the cost of this procedure.By calculating the received uplink signal TDOA using threeor four satellite on earth orbit, the position of the transmitterscan be localized. When the transmitter is located on the earth,three satellites and when the elevation of the transmitter is notknown, four satellites are needed to localize the position of thetransmitters. So in the passive systems, approximation of thedelay time between the signals receive time from two differentsensors plays a significant role in measurement of the distanceand direction of the transmitters. When a signal is emitted intothe environment from transmitter, it spreads with a specificspeed, so two receivers with different distance from thetransmitter, sense the signal with a time delay. If S(t) is theemitted signal from transmitter and assume that there is justone way for signal transmission, then the signals first willreceive to the nearest receiver and with a delay to the nextreceiver, the delay time is shown with D. So the goal is tomeasure this delay and approximation of this delay has asignificant role in synchronization and positioning process [2].II.
 
S
YNCHRONIZATION
 The controll system is shown in fig. 1. In this circuit theLNA model is used in S-parameters block. In this block thevalues of S-parameters, Noise Figure and IIP3 are changeable.In this circuit the Gaussian Signal is used as input(Fig. 2). Also the white noise is applied to the signal andconsidered as a non ideal factor.
Figure 1. Controlling system designed for Synchronization
48http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
Figure 2. The Gaussian Signal that is applied to the controlcircuit as input
The structure of the synchronization is so that the inputdelay of T1 is considered by the integer delay block. After theamplification stage, the changes of the S-parameter are exertedto the input signal that simulates the LNA stage, and it istransferred to the output. The second input in this simulationthat is also the Gaussian signal, is multiply to the first signalwith a delay and it is transferred to the output. The point is thatthe second output also has delay equal to T2 that is shown inthe “integer delay 2” block. Now by using a feedback from theoutput to the second input, the delay is changeable so that the both inputs become concurrent.The easiest and most effective way for synchronization of the both input signals is to multiply the feedback output withthe first input, and simultaneously check the output until theoutput becomes maximal. Now the delay can be recorded andstored. When the both inputs become synchronize the outputwill become maximal.III.
 
L
OW
 N
OISE
A
MPLIFIER 
(LNA)In this paper the model of an inductorless low-noiseamplifier (LNA) is used. [3] This LNA is designed for ultra-wideband (UWB) receivers and for microwave access,covering the frequency range from 0.4 to 5.7 GHz using 0.18-
μ
m CMOS technology. Simulation results show that thevoltage gain reaches a peak of 19.6 dB in-band with an upper 
Figure 3. LNA circuit that is used in the controlling circuit.
3-dB frequency of 5.7 GHz. The IIP3 is about -3 dBm and thenoise figure (NF) ranges from 3.06-3.8 dB over the band of interest. Input reflection coefficient S11 is below -8.79dB for the design. The LNA consumes 5.77 mW from a low supplyvoltage of 1.8 V. A figure of merit is devised to compare the proposed designs to recently published wideband CMOSLNAs. The proposed topology achieves a lower NF than that of the topology capacitive cross-coupling with inductors, with theadditional advantage of removing the bulky inductors. It isshown that the LNA is designed without on-chip inductors thatits performance is comparable with inductor-based designs.The LNA circuit that is used in this system is shown in fig. 3.LNA properties such as gain, IIP3 and etc. that are used for synchronization in this system are given in TABLE I.Also an example of the test results is shown inTABLE II.
TABLE I. LNA
PROPERTIES THAT ARE USED IN
S
IMULATION
 TABLE II. T
EST
ESULTS
 FOM No.of CoilsPower(mW)IIP3 (Dbm)Gain (db)S
11
(dB) NF (dB)BW(GHz)Technology 3.6805.77-319.66<-8.793.06 ~ 3.80.4 ~ 5.70.18
μ
mS22
 
S21
 
S12
 
S11
 
Frequency
 
OIP3(dbm)
 
 Noise Figure (db)
 
Gain
 
Delay
 
Gain1
 
Output
 -8.64-49.761.76-9.323.5E6inf 01005-10
-8
10
49http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
By evaluation of the test results, some points areachievable:1.
 
The delay time is respectively related to noise, noisefigure, initial delay and OIP3. The LNA gain will affectthe delay time but it has a little impact. Also the impactof S-parameter is so small that it is neglect able.2.
 
By increasing the noise figure the delay time willincrease. Also in high value of the LNA gain itsincrease will cause an increase in delay time, but noisefigure does not show such a behavior.3.
 
The effect of the OIP3 in comparison with S-parameter is higher. (by changing the S-parameter values not a bigchange is observed.4.
 
By increasing the OIP3 value the delay time isdecreased.But the problem in designing such a controlling system isthat about 45 second is needed to process such a big amount of data and it is one of the disadvantages of this system, becausemoreover to input delay time we will lose the time needed for the calculation process of software that is very bad for synchronization systems. So to reduce the calculation time theneural network is used.IV.
 
U
SAGE OF NEURAL NETWORK IN SYNCHRONIZATION
 In this system a linear neural network is used. To minimizethe errors in these networks, the training process is done byusing squares least mean algorithm (Fig. 4).The neural network that is used in this process must be sofast and so accurate. First of all the goal is to synchronize thesignals with each other by using the neural network. To trainthe neural network the previous Gaussian signal is used that isshown in fig. 5.The objective function of the neural network can beachieved from multiplying of two Gaussian signals that isshown in fig. 6. Now many samples of Gaussian signal with different delaytime are applied to the neural network for training purpose. For instance to test the designed neural network the signal that isshown in fig. 7 is used. Also to test the robustness of thenetwork, samples that contain noise and have different delaysin comparison with original signals are used.
Figure 4. The structure of linear neural network used in this control system.Figure 5. The initial signal that is used to train the neural network Figure 6. The objective signal that is used to train the system.
An example of the signal that is used for test purpose isshown in fig. 7. The noises and delays are obviously shown inthis figure.
Figure 7. The test signal that contains noise and delay
50http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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