(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
generate Golomb Ruler sequences, i.e., biogeography basedoptimization algorithm and its performance comparison withexisting classical methods that employ EQC and SA , ,.III.
FORMULATIONIf the spacing between any pair of channels is denoted as
and the total number of channels is
, then the objectiveis to minimize the length of the ruler denoted as
, which isgiven by the equation (1):
are distinct.If each individual element is a Golomb Ruler, the sum of all elements of an individual forms the bandwidth of thechannels. Thus, if an individual element is denoted as
andthe total number of elements is
, then the second objectiveis to minimize the bandwidth (
), which is given by theequation (2):
APPROACHIn this section, the capabilities of a new technique based onthe mathematics of biogeography called BBO for thegeneration of optimal Golomb Ruler sequences will bediscussed.
Biogeography Based Optimization
Biogeography Based Optimization is a population
basedevolutionary algorithm (EA) developed for globaloptimization. It is based on the mathematics of biogeography.It is a new kind of optimization algorithm which is inspiredby the science of Biogeography. It mimics the migrationstrategy of animals to solve the problem of optimization 
. Biogeography is the study of the geographicaldistribution of biological organisms. Biogeography theoryproposes that the number of species found on habitat ismainly determined by immigration and emigration.Immigration is the arrival of new species into a habitat, whileemigration is
the act of leaving one‘s native region.
Thescience of biogeography can be traced to the work of nineteenth century naturalists such as Alfred Wallace and Charles Darwin .In BBO, problem solutions are represented as islands andthe sharing of features between solutions is represented asemigration and immigration. An island is any habitat that isgeographically isolated from other habitats .The idea of BBO was first presented by Dan Simon inDecember 2008 and is an example of how a natural processcan be modeled to solve general optimization problems .This is similar to what has occurred in the past few decadeswith Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks(ANNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO), and other areas of computer
intelligence. Biogeography is nature‘s way of distributing
species, and is analogous to general problem solving.Suppose that there are some problems and that a certainnumber of candidate solutions are there. A good solution isanalogous to an island with a high HSI (Habitat suitabilityindex), and a poor solution is like an island with a low HSI.Features that correlate with HSI include factors such asdistance to the nearest neighboring habitat, climate, rainfall,plant and animal diversity, diversity of topographic features,land area, human activity, and temperature . Thevariables that characterize habitability are called suitabilityindex variables (SIVs). High HSI solutions are more likely toshare their features with other solutions, and HSI solutionsare more likely to accept shared features from other solutions
. As with every other evolutionary algorithm, eachsolution might also have some probability of mutation,although mutation is not an essential feature of BBO theimprovement of solutions is obtained by perturbing thesolution after the migration operation .
BBO Algorithm to Generate Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences
The basic structure of BBO algorithm to generate OGRsequences is as follows:1.
Initialize the BBO parameters: maximum speciescount i.e. population size
, the maximummigration rates
, the maximum mutation rate
, an elitism parameter and the number of iterations.2.
Initialize the number of channels (or marks) ‗N‘ and
the upper bound on the length of the ruler.3.
Initialize a random set of habitats (integerpopulation), each habitat corresponding to apotential solution to the given problem. The numberof integers in each habitat being equal to the numberof channels or mark input by the user.4.
Check the golombness of each habitat. If it satisfiesthe conditions for Golomb Ruler sequence, retainthat habitat; if it does not, delete that particularhabitat from the population generated from the step3.5.
For each habitat, map the HSI (Total Bandwidth) tothe number of species
the immigration rate
, andthe emigration rate
Probabilistically use immigration and emigration tomodify each non
elite habitat, then recompute eachHSI.7.
For each habitat, update the probability of its speciescount given by equation (3). Then, mutate eachnon
elite habitat based on its probability, check golombness of each habitat again and thenrecompute each HSI.
1 1,1 1 1 1,1 1,
s s s s ss s s s s s s ss s s s s
P PP P P PP P
are the immigration and emigrationrates, when there are
species in the habitat.8.
Is acceptable solution found? If yes then go to Step10.9.
Number of iterations over? If no then go to Step 3for the next iteration.10.
SS SS S