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Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN’s Using UWB - OFDM Physical layer

Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN’s Using UWB - OFDM Physical layer

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Published by ijcsis
One of the most significant determinants for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutive physical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in the manipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN depending upon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited. However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWB machines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissions may not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at huge-data-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPAN machine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximize the coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entire machine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Service conditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hop correspondence situations. Simulation outputs for Multi Hop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layer are reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning, the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps, 480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives for the highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate respectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20m geographical areas for the networks fields for the Multi Hop scenarios in this simulation model. The critical functionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for all the source – Destination pairs are manipulated and restricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.
One of the most significant determinants for the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutive physical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal Area Networks) is MB – OFDM (Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in the manipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN depending upon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited. However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWB machines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissions may not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at huge-data-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPAN machine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximize the coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entire machine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Service conditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hop correspondence situations. Simulation outputs for Multi Hop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layer are reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning, the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps, 480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives for the highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional rate respectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20m geographical areas for the networks fields for the Multi Hop scenarios in this simulation model. The critical functionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End – to – End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for all the source – Destination pairs are manipulated and restricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
Enhancement of Throughput for Multi Hop WPAN
susing UWB- OFDM Physical Layer
Ch. Subrahmanyam
Department of ECEScient Institute of TechnologyHyderabad, Indiae-mail:subbunvl@yahoo.com
K. Chennakesava Reddy
 
Department of ECETKR College of Engg. &Tech.Hyderabad, Indiae-mail: kesavary@hotmail.com
Syed Abdul Sattar
Department of ECERoyal Institute of Tech. & ScienceHyderabad, IndiaEmail:
syedabdulsattar1965@gmail.com
 
 Abstract 
 — 
One of the most significant determinantsfor the UWB (Ultra Wide Band) based substitutivephysical layer for WPANS (Wireless Personal AreaNetworks) is MB
 – 
OFDM (Multiband OrthogonalFrequency Division Multiplexing). This paper deals in themanipulation outcomes for Multi-Hop WPAN dependingupon the UWB - OFDM physical layer are exhibited.However, the spectrum radius of MB-OFDM UWBmachines is quite minimal, and single-hop transmissionsmay not be sufficient for WPANs functionalizing at huge-data-rates. Therefore, a multi-hop provisional WPANmachine is appropriated at this juncture so as to maximizethe coverage of UWB radio. Performance of the entiremachine is achieved to determine if the Quality-of-Serviceconditions can, now even, be sustained when an IEEE802.15.3 TDMA MAC stratum is used in multi-hopcorrespondence situations. Simulation outputs for MultiHop WPAN standing on the UWB - OFDM physical layerare reproduced in this paper. In this mode of functioning,the transmitting machines for the data rates of 200 Mbps,480 Mbps are used because these two are the directives forthe highest compulsion rate and the greatest optional raterespectively. We used both 9mX 9m and 20mX20mgeographical areas for the networks fields for the MultiHop scenarios in this simulation model. The criticalfunctionalities of the Multi Hop WPANS like average End
 – 
to
 – 
End Delay and Packet Failure Rate(PFR) and for allthe source
 – 
Destination pairs are manipulated andrestricted by employing the Qualnet network simulator.
Keywords- Multi hop,
OFDM, Throughput, UWB, WPAN’s
 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
At this juncture, there is a huge requirement for wirelesscommunication systems that could be monitored at highamount of data rates over a very less distance communicationsso as to attain the modern advances in electronic gadgets(Camcorders, DVD Players, etc). The usage of high - rateWireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) for shortdistances provisional connectivity among electronic gadgetsand communication devices have paved their way since 2000.having been approved from Federal CommunicationsCommission (FCC) for the use of Ultra- Wide- Band (UWB)on the unlicensed band in 3.1
 – 
10.6 GHz range maximizes theextensive usage of cutting edge WPAN networks (up to 480Mbps) grounding on a UWB physical layer application. Thespecial interest group (SIG) from IEEE have structured for thishigh- rate WPANS, which is popularly known as IEEE802.15.3.We begin with the thought of Multi Hop Wireless PersonalArea Network (WPAN) in this paper, then the confrontationsof the Multi Hop WPANS, and later the reflections of MultiHop WPANS for the performance assessments like End- to-End delay, Packet Failure rate calculations for both the datarates of 200 Mbps and 480 Mbps.II.
 
M
ULTI HOP WPAN
S
 Mobile multi-hop Adhoc networks (MANETs) are assortmentsof mobile nodes of bridges linked together over a wirelessviaduct. These nodes can freely and actively self-monitor intoapproximate and temporary expedient network analysis sites.In this way, instruments can seamlessly inter-network in areaswhere pre-existing communication infrastructure (e.g., disasterrecovery sites and battlefield environments) is zero. Thediscreet connectivity concept is not a budding one , but hasbeen in existence for the last 30 years in different modes suchas packet radio network (1972), sustainable adaptive radionetwork (1980), Global Mobile information system (early1990s). Due to their quick and economically less demandingdeployment of Ad hoc wireless networks we observeapplications for the same in many areas. Defense applications,associated and spearheaded computing, emergency operations,wireless mesh networks, wireless sensor networks, and hybridwireless network architectures are some of the areas itsapplications. Conventionally, logical networks have been theonly correspondence networking practice that accepted the adhoc paradigm. The thumb-rule behind provisional networkingis that of multi-hop relaying.In cellular networks, the routing decisions are acceded in acentralized format under the surveillance of base stations. Butin an ad hoc cordless network, both accessing and resourcemanagement are operated in a scattered form in which allnodes would associate to capacitate communication among thenodes themselves. This calls for each bridge to be more
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intelligible so that it can act both as a data signaling host fortransmitting and receiving data, and as a network lane forrouting packets from other ends. Hence, the mobile paths inpossible wireless networks are more confusing and entangledthan that of their correspondents in cellular networks. Thetruancy of any central administrator, or control station, makesthe routing process a more complicated one compared to thatfound in cellular networks. Multi-network 
―hops‖ may be
required for one station to interchange information withanother node located elsewhere in the network due to therestricted transmission range of a wireless network. In such anetwork, each mobile node operates not only as a host but alsoas a router, forwarding packets for other mobile nodes in thenetwork that may not be within direct wireless transmissionrange of each other. Each node involves in an accessing
 protocol that permits it to search for ―
Multi-
hop‖
pathsthrough the network to any other node.WPAN is said to be a single-hop network as per the presentIEEE 802.15.3 Strategy. That is, an info packet can beforwarded only from a source address to a destination address,and there is no arbitrating nod
e to work as a ―router‖. Using an
UWB - OFDM physical layer practicability for a WPAN, theamount that can be attained is acutely minute, usually less than10 meters. For an assured transmission with minimal packeterror progression, a certain concentration of within 4 meters isusually needed. The benefit with a multi-hop network isobvious as it can maximise network coverage withoutincreasing either the accessibility strength, or sensitivity of thereceiver. The other advantage is that of improved reliabilitythrough redundancy of route. The ambit of IEEE 802.15.3MAC code to provide multi-hop networks calls for attentiveand comprehensive observation.An example is used to demonstrate why a Multi - hop WPANis required to provide backup for immense progressionpractical traffic flows. A video conference or home theatresystem is a trivial practice for use of WPAN based on theOFDM UWB physical layer. That is, to transmit themultimedia traffic instead of using cables, the unwired linkswill be used. The frequency range requirements for eachtraffic outflow is about 6 Mbps, the average downtime shouldbe less than 90 ms, and the packet Failure rate, less than 8% soas to arrive at the required QoS level. The circuitry region fora video conference or home theatre system generally rangesfrom 9 m x 9 m to 20 m x 20 m. The indemnity radius for anUWB - OFDM regulation is relatively only 3 meters for a dataprocession of 200 Mbps and only 7 meters for a infoprogression of 480 Mbps to guarantee a PER of 8%. A single-hop network structure is inadequate to cover the expectednetwork area for these huge amounts of data rates haveretained obvious. If a Multi - hop WPAN frame works well,then the network coverage area can be perfectly enlargedthrough the application of arbitrary nodes while monitoringtransmission at the required data rates. The suitability of theIEEE 802.15.3 TDMA MAC layer for use with multi-hopWPAN systems necessitates to be recognized. In Multi - hopnetwork, due to the huge amount of variables taken part, theamplitude of the machine develops significantly, thusmaterializing logical modeling a considerably arduous task.On the side of the machine, simulation methods capacitate theexploration of more problematic and realistic phenomena. Incomposite machinery such as multi-hop networks, attentivepreference of the system attributes can drive to considerabledevelopment in function, specifically for time-sensitiveapplications. Focusing on time-sensitive applications, theobjective is to examine the performance strategies of multi-hop WPAN systems standing on an OFDM physical layer.Compatible system functioning precautions involving end-to-end delay, productivity and packet failure rate realized invarious conditions with different choices of systemparameters.A.
 
Capacity Analysis of a Multi-Hop Network The network productivity or approximate capacity for a multi-hop network is described in this section. When frequencyreuse is not considered, the capacity of multi-hop networks isgreatly affected by the average hop count h. Theoretically, if the network capacity based on peer-to-peer communications isC , the capacity of multi-hop networks will be C = C/h ,assuming that the network bandwidth used for routingmessages is multi negligible, and that a high-efficiencyscheduling scheme is implemented. If the aggregate packetproduction rate is r Mbps, the highest number of source-destination pairs that can be supported is L = C /r. When thenumber of source-targeted pairs L is max multi over L,packets will be launched due to the existence of a network duepoint condition at max.The conversion and transformation system being monitored at200 Mbps is utilized here to exemplify how the Multi- hopnetwork ability is related to the associated network strategy and the average hop count. It is known that theattainable productivity for 200 Mbps peer-to-peer transmissionis about 120 Mbps. If the average hop count is set to h = 3, thecapacity of a multi-hop network will be C = 120/3= 40 Mbps,theoretically. the maximum number of source-destination =40/6 = 6, if the average packet multi generation rate per link isr = 6 Mbps,. If the packet Generation rate doubles, that can besupported is L = C /r max multi per link r = 3 Mbps, then themaximum number of source-destination pairs that can be =40/3 = 13. If the average hop count is fixed to backed up isL = C /r h = 4, the max multi capacity of a multi-hop network will be C = 120/4 = 30 Mbps, theoretically. If the multiaverage packet generation rate per link is r = 6 Mbps, then themaximum number of source-destination pairs that can besupported is L = C /r = 30/6 = 5. The maximum number of source-destination pairs that can be backed up is L = C /r =30/3 = 10. If the max multi average packet generation rateper link is r = 3 Mbps. When the max multi number of source-estimation pairs L is greater than L, packets will get a break down affected due to the saturation of max network.
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Resultantly, the packet failure rate and the aggregatedowntime should increase productively.III.
 
P
REVAILING
C
HALLENGES IN
M
ULTI
-H
OP
N
ETWORKS
 In a multi-hop provisional network, connections correspondwith each other using multi-hop wireless links, and there areno static infrastructure instruments similar to a ground station.Each connection in the network also plays a role as a router,enrooting data packets for other nodes. One of the prominenthurdles is the structure of active routing protocols that canefficiently search for routes between two corresponding nodes.Routing is apparently the first methodology to be reconsideredin altering from single-hop to multi-hop implementations [6].A mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) functioning set hasbeen established within the Internet Engineering Task Force(IEFT) to develop a routing framework for IP-based protocolsin ad hoc networks. Dozens of routing protocols for MANETshave been introduced, some examples including DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector), DSR (DynamicSource Routing), and AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand DistanceVector). However, most simulations and performanceaffinities of mobile Adhoc network piloting protocols arebased on a condensed and visionary physical layer model, aswell as easy performance metrics.Most of the presently prevailing codes were framed out underthe hypothesis of an UDG (Unit Disk Graph) communicationmodel, in which signal strength variations due to a realisticchannel are not considered. Without modification, suchrouting schemes cannot work well with physical layercharacteristics that are correspondent of more factualcommunication channel environments.IV. SIMULATION RESULTS FOR MULTI-HOP WPANSYSTEMSThe simulation results for multi-hop communication systemstructuralizing are exhibited, and the assistive performanceanalyses are given in this paper. The transmission systemsoperating at 200 Mbps and 480 Mbps are simulated in thisanalysis as they are representatives of the immense mandatoryrate and the immense optional rate, respectively. First, thesimulation results and function analysis for the equal-weightednode-based scheduling scheme are shown. Then, thesimulation outputs and performance analysis for the on-demand link-based scheduling scheme are given.In an unorthodox simulation scheme we applied for Multi
 – 
 Hop networks are basically depended on the Link formationalgorithm because of the existence of direct relationshipbetween the Throughput and the scheduling competence. Inthis imaging task we used the two Link organizing algorithms;the first is Equal-Weighted Node-Based Scheduling and thesecond, On-Demand Link-Based Scheduling.
Table 1. abridges the limitations of system used in the simulations for theMulti -hop situations recognized in this analysis
.
Simulation parameter Value
Simulation TimeNumber of nodesNumber of linksNetwork Area
 Node’s coverage radius to
achieve a PER of 5%5s202,4,6,8,1020mX20m for 200 Mbs9mX9m for 480 Mbps6.9m for 200 Mbps2.95m for 480 MbpsNumber of ChannelsTransmission PowerReceiver sensitivityChannel model consideredPacket size(applicationlayer)1(Center Frequency = 3.432GHz-10.3 dBm-77.2 dBm for 200 Mbps-72.6 dBm for 480 dBmFree space,Shadowing,andRayleigh fading982 bytes(will be 1024 bytesafter MAC layer)Max Network Buffer sizeCTA slot DurationNumber of slots per Framefor Equal- Weighed Node-Based SchedulingNumber of slots per Framefor On
 – 
Demand Link-Based SchedulingGuard time between slotsIntra Frame time1,00,000 BytesTransmission duration of 1024-Byte Packet2020,40 for 200 Mbps30,60 for 480 Mbps1 µs1.875
 
s
A.
 
SIMULATION RESULTS FOR EQUAL-WEIGHTEDNODE-BASED SCHEDULINGThe equal-weighted node-based scheduling scheme is firstimplemented. The packet generation rates are taken to be 128kbps, 3 Mbps and 6 Mbps. Figures 1 and 2 exemplify theaverage delay and the PFR with PGR taken as a parameterusing the equal- weighted scheduling scheme for systemsoperating at 200 Mbps. Figures 3 and 4 illustrate the averagedelay and the PFR with PGR considered a parameter using theequal- weighted scheduling scheme for systems beingoperated at 480 Mbps.Each node has the same share of the bandwidth irrespective of whether it has a packet to transmit or not and independent of how many packets it needs to transmit for equal-weightednode-based scheduling. For the total number of network nodesset to 20, each node can have 120/20 = 6 Mbps of frequency of the network available for systems being operated at 200 Mbps,and 180/20 = 9 Mbps of network bandwidth available forsystems operating at 480 Mbps. If the PGR per link is 6 Mbps,only 1, or possibly 1.5 traffic currents can be backed up by onenode in either case. So, there will be collisions, and some of the packets will be dropped, if a node is a transmitting nodefor one traffic progression and a forwarding node for anothertraffic stream. This situation occurs rarely, and sometimesthere are number of traffic currents which need to be
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