algorithm and then secure transmission of thedata using a methodology based on encryptionand decryptionare proposed and presented.
In this paper, the proposed methodology isdivided intotwolayers(modules)for embeddingand securely transmitting the multimedia data.The first layer consists of converting(encoding)the secret image into string of Gödel NumberSequence throughGödelization, compressing theencoded string using alphabetic codingandembedding the encoded compressedstringinto the cover image using middle bandcoefficient exchange method under frequencydomain.In the second layer, encryption anddecryption techniquesare implemented forsecure transmission of the data. In this section abrief description of the definitions and theconcepts are presented.In the first layer, the secret image whichis to be transmitted securely is converted intoGödel Number Sequence(GNS) through theconcept of Gödelization. According to it,theintensity values at a point f(x,y) in the image aretransformed into thepower of its primes.Consider a pixel value 39 which can befactorized as 3
. So the Gödel numbersequence of 39 = GN (0,1,0,0,0,1). Thesequence 0,1,0,0,0,1 can be encoded as 3
as GN(0)= 2,GN(1)=3,GN(2)=5 and so on.Afterconverting each and every pixel into thecorresponding GNS, alphabetic compressiontechnique(AC) is applied to compress theGNS. According to AC, if the GNS has asequence of more 0’s and 1’s, we represent 0’swith ‘A’, 1’s with ‘B’, 2’s with ‘C’ and so on. If we encounter more than 3 same characters then,the number of occurrences are representedfirstfollowed by the character.After applying AC,there is a considerable amount of compressionachieved.The obtained encoded compressedstring is embedded into the cover image usingmiddle band coefficient exchange methodunder frequency domain.According to literaturesurvey, embedding of secret data into the digitalimages can be done in two domains. One isspatial domain where the intensityvalues(pixels) of the image are manipulated anddata is hidden in the intensity values of theimages. The second method is frequency domainwhere the frequency components of the digitalimages are considered[5,6]. The secret data isembedded into the frequency components of theimage. It is observed that spatial domainmanipulations are easy when compared tofrequency domain, yet frequency domainprovides more security when compared tospatial domain techniques. So in this work,frequency domain is chosen as the media anddiscrete cosine transforms(DCT) areconsidered. After embedding the data into thecover image, a key(k) and a stego image isobtained which is given as input to the secondlayer. In the second layer, the obtained Key andthe stego image are encrypted and transmitted.At the decoding end, the decoder decrypts thestego image with his private key.3.
Encryption and Decryption
With the continuing development of bothcomputer and Internet technology, multimediadata (images, videos, audios, etc.) is being usedmore and more widely, in applications such asvideo conferencing, broadcasting, education,commerce, politics etc., and so the securityconcerns are also increasing. To maintainsecurity, multimedia data should be protectedbefore transmission or distribution. The typicalprotection method is the encryption technique which transforms the data from the originalform into an unintelligible form. Until now,various data encryption algorithms have beenproposed and widely used, such as AES, RSA,or IDEA [9,10], most of which are used in textor binary data. It is difficult to use them directlyin multimedia data, for multimedia data areoften of high redundancy, of large volumes andrequire real-time interactions, such asdisplaying, cutting, copying, bit rate conversion,etc. So in this paper, the multimedia data(thesecret image) is encoded and compressed usingGödelization and alphabetic coding as explainedin the previous section.This encoded compressedstring is embedded into the cover image underfrequency domain using middle band coefficientexchange method to obtain a key and a stego
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011133http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500