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A Novel Steganographic Methodology For Secure Transmission Of Images

A Novel Steganographic Methodology For Secure Transmission Of Images

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Published by ijcsis
In recent days steganographic techniques have gained a lot of significance in many of the security applications. In this paper a two layered secure methodology for transmitting multimedia data is proposed and implemented. In the first layer, encoding based compression of the message to be hidden is done based on G_delization and Alphabetic coding (AC). In the second layera steganographic approach is adopted for embedding of the encoded text into the cover image under frequency domain and the obtained stego image is transmitted securely using a novel encryption and decryption methods.
In recent days steganographic techniques have gained a lot of significance in many of the security applications. In this paper a two layered secure methodology for transmitting multimedia data is proposed and implemented. In the first layer, encoding based compression of the message to be hidden is done based on G_delization and Alphabetic coding (AC). In the second layera steganographic approach is adopted for embedding of the encoded text into the cover image under frequency domain and the obtained stego image is transmitted securely using a novel encryption and decryption methods.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 05, 2011
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A Novel Steganographic Methodology ForSecure Transmission Of Images
 B.V.Ramadevi*D.LalithaBhaskari*P.S.Avadhani*Research ScholarAssociate ProfessorProfessorbvramadevi@yahoo.comlalithabhaskari@yahoo.co.inpsavadhani@yahoo.com *Department of Computer Science & Systems EngineeringAUCE(A), Andhra University,Visakhapatnam
Abstract :
In recent days steganographictechniqueshave gained a lot of significance in many of thesecurity applications. In this paper a two layeredsecure methodology for transmitting multimediadata is proposed and implemented. In the firstlayer,encoding based compression of themessage to be hidden is done based onG
delization and Alphabetic coding(AC). In thesecond layera steganographic approach isadopted for embedding of the encoded text intothe cover image under frequency domain and theobtained stego image is transmitted securelyusing a novel encryption and decryptionmethods.
Keywords:
Alphabetic Coding, Cover image,Encryption, Decryption,G
delization,stegoimage.
1.
 
Introduction
Steganography is a modern anddynamically developing part of informationsecurity whichprotects information by its hidingtechniques. Technically speaking, steganographyis a covert communication technology, whichallows secret information to be embedded into acover/host message without significantlydamaging the content of the cover message. Themessage usually will be an image and the secretinformation which is to be embedded is calledthe stego message. Today steganography has gotmany differentways to hide information likeimages, audio, videoetc.Infactsteganography,cryptography,watermarking are all different branches of informationhiding.Information hiding also often termed asdata hiding or multimedia data hiding is a termcovering a wide range of problems beyondembedding messages in content. The term hidingcan refer to either making the informationperceptible or keeping the existence of information secret. Compared with text or binarydata, multimedia data often has highredundancy, large volumes and real-timeoperations. All these properties require thatmultimedia data should be compressed,encrypted and securely transmitted for therequired applications. During the past decades,various multimedia encryption algorithms havebeen proposed and studied.They can beclassified into three types which are imageencryption, audio encryption, and videoencryption. Generally, for different content,different encryption algorithms should beadopted[1].In this paper a novel image encodingbased on G
delization[2],compression based onalphabetic coding[2],embedding the data into thecover image using a steganographic methodtermed as middle band coefficient exchange
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011132http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
algorithm[3] and then secure transmission of thedata using a methodology based on encryptionand decryption[4]are proposed and presented.
2.
 
Basic Concepts
In this paper, the proposed methodology isdivided intotwolayers(modules)for embeddingand securely transmitting the multimedia data.The first layer consists of converting(encoding)the secret image into string of Gödel NumberSequence throughGödelization, compressing theencoded string using alphabetic codingandembedding the encoded compressedstringinto the cover image using middle bandcoefficient exchange method[3] under frequencydomain.In the second layer, encryption anddecryption techniquesare implemented forsecure transmission of the data. In this section abrief description of the definitions and theconcepts are presented.In the first layer, the secret image whichis to be transmitted securely is converted intoGödel Number Sequence(GNS) through theconcept of Gödelization[2]. According to it,theintensity values at a point f(x,y) in the image aretransformed into thepower of its primes.Consider a pixel value 39 which can befactorized as 3
1
×13
1
. So the Gödel numbersequence of 39 = GN (0,1,0,0,0,1). Thesequence 0,1,0,0,0,1 can be encoded as 3
1
×13
1
 as GN(0)= 2,GN(1)=3,GN(2)=5 and so on.Afterconverting each and every pixel into thecorresponding GNS, alphabetic compressiontechnique(AC)[2] is applied to compress theGNS. According to AC, if the GNS has asequence of more 0’s and 1’s, we represent 0’swith ‘A’, 1’s with ‘B’, 2’s with ‘C’ and so on. If we encounter more than 3 same characters then,the number of occurrences are representedfirstfollowed by the character.After applying AC,there is a considerable amount of compressionachieved.The obtained encoded compressedstring is embedded into the cover image usingmiddle band coefficient exchange[2] methodunder frequency domain.According to literaturesurvey, embedding of secret data into the digitalimages can be done in two domains. One isspatial domain[4] where the intensityvalues(pixels) of the image are manipulated anddata is hidden in the intensity values of theimages. The second method is frequency domainwhere the frequency components of the digitalimages are considered[5,6]. The secret data isembedded into the frequency components of theimage. It is observed that spatial domainmanipulations are easy when compared tofrequency domain, yet frequency domainprovides more security when compared tospatial domain techniques. So in this work,frequency domain is chosen as the media anddiscrete cosine transforms(DCT)[7] areconsidered. After embedding the data into thecover image, a key(k) and a stego image isobtained which is given as input to the secondlayer. In the second layer, the obtained Key andthe stego image are encrypted and transmitted.At the decoding end, the decoder decrypts thestego image with his private key.3.
Encryption and Decryption
 With the continuing development of bothcomputer and Internet technology, multimediadata (images, videos, audios, etc.) is being usedmore and more widely, in applications such asvideo conferencing, broadcasting, education,commerce, politics etc., and so the securityconcerns are also increasing. To maintainsecurity, multimedia data should be protectedbefore transmission or distribution. The typicalprotection method is the encryption technique[9] which transforms the data from the originalform into an unintelligible form. Until now,various data encryption algorithms have beenproposed and widely used, such as AES, RSA,or IDEA [9,10], most of which are used in textor binary data. It is difficult to use them directlyin multimedia data, for multimedia data areoften of high redundancy, of large volumes andrequire real-time interactions, such asdisplaying, cutting, copying, bit rate conversion,etc. So in this paper, the multimedia data(thesecret image) is encoded and compressed usingGödelization and alphabetic coding as explainedin the previous section.This encoded compressedstring is embedded into the cover image underfrequency domain using middle band coefficientexchange method[10] to obtain a key and a stego
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011133http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
image. The key and stego image combinedtogether are encrypted and transmitted. At thedecoding end, it is decrypted using the decoder’sprivate key. The encryption and decryptionmodels are shown below in fig 1 and 2respectively.
Fig 1. Scheme for EncryptionHere the stego image and the key generatedare given as input to the encryptionalgorithm. The cipher text is given as inputto the decoder which decodes the cipher textalong with the receiver’s private key.Thedecoding process is as shown below.
Fig. 2Scheme for decryption
4. Proposed Methodology
The proposed methodology providestwo layered security when compared to thetraditional methods.The whole scheme of theproposed methodology can be viewed as shownbelow in figures3 and 4. The secret image(data)which is to be hidden is encoded into GödelNumber string(GNS) using Gödelizationtechnique,later the encoded string is compressedusing AC technique.This encoded compressedstring is embedded into the cover image usingmiddle band frequency exchange method in thefrequency domain.The output obtained afterembedding the data is a key and a stegoimage.This provides the first layer of security.The obtained key and the stego image isnow encrypted and decrypted.In this model,MD5 is used for hashing,IDEA is used for theencryption process. This provides second layerof security and the data is transmitted. At thedecoder end the data is decrypted so as to obtainthemessage which is the key (k) and the imagedata(M) which is obtained during embeddingunder frequency domain.This data is decodedwith the key, then reverse Gödelization is usedto obtain GNS, upon which reverse alphabeticcoding is applied to obtain the image datawhichis reconstructed to obtain the secret image.
Cipher textDecryptionMessage(M)Message(M)Encryption
Ciphertext
 
Gödel NumberString (GNS)EncodedcompressedstringStegoEmbedder
 
Gödelization
Secretimage
 
Alphabeticcoding(AC)
Key( K)|| EncryptionAlgorithm(E)
Stego image
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011134http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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