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Load-Balancing Geographic Routing Algorithm (ELBGR) For Wireless Sensor Networks

Load-Balancing Geographic Routing Algorithm (ELBGR) For Wireless Sensor Networks

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Published by ijcsis
The major challenges faced by wireless sensor networks are energy-efficiency and self-organization. A thorough literature study of routing in WSNs shows that there exist so many routing protocols for WSNs, each of which has the common objective of trying to get better throughput and to extend the lifetime of the sensor network. In this research work the Location-based or Geographic routing in WSN is mainly focused for energy issues and a location based WSN routing protocol ELBGR (Energy aware & Load Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that features the energy efficiency and self organization of the wireless sensor networks. This protocol extends the lifetime of the network and balances the energy consumption of the nodes within the network. ELBGR considers neighbor’s energy levels, packet reception rate and the locations of the nodes for data forwarding purpose. Each node knows geographic location, energy levels and PRR of its neighbors. The proposed algorithm selects a set of relative optimal nodes from all neighbors called Forwarding Nodes Set (FNS) in the first phase and in the next phase from FNS, the Optimal Forwarding Node (OFN) is finally selected for forwarding purpose. The proposed algorithm balances the energy levels among all the neighbors. A comparison has been made between pre-existing routing algorithms Greedy routing, EAGR, EEAR, HHEAA and the proposed one ELBGR. The Simulation results (in OMNET++) show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of higher success rate, throughput and less number of dead nodes and it effectively increases the lifetime of the sensor networks.
The major challenges faced by wireless sensor networks are energy-efficiency and self-organization. A thorough literature study of routing in WSNs shows that there exist so many routing protocols for WSNs, each of which has the common objective of trying to get better throughput and to extend the lifetime of the sensor network. In this research work the Location-based or Geographic routing in WSN is mainly focused for energy issues and a location based WSN routing protocol ELBGR (Energy aware & Load Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that features the energy efficiency and self organization of the wireless sensor networks. This protocol extends the lifetime of the network and balances the energy consumption of the nodes within the network. ELBGR considers neighbor’s energy levels, packet reception rate and the locations of the nodes for data forwarding purpose. Each node knows geographic location, energy levels and PRR of its neighbors. The proposed algorithm selects a set of relative optimal nodes from all neighbors called Forwarding Nodes Set (FNS) in the first phase and in the next phase from FNS, the Optimal Forwarding Node (OFN) is finally selected for forwarding purpose. The proposed algorithm balances the energy levels among all the neighbors. A comparison has been made between pre-existing routing algorithms Greedy routing, EAGR, EEAR, HHEAA and the proposed one ELBGR. The Simulation results (in OMNET++) show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of higher success rate, throughput and less number of dead nodes and it effectively increases the lifetime of the sensor networks.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May2011
LOAD-BALANCING GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING ALGORITHM(ELBGR) FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Nazia PerwaizDepartment of Computer Engineering, NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, NationalUniversity of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad,Pakistan.missnazia@ceme.nust.edu.pk 
Abstract
: The major challenges faced by wireless sensor networks are energy-efficiency and self- organization. .A thorough literature study of routing inWSNs shows that there exist so many routing protocols for WSNs, each of which has the common objective of  trying to get better throughput and to extend thelifetime of the sensor network. In this research work the Location-based or Geographic routing in WSN is mainly focused for energy issues and a location based WSN routing protocol ELBGR (Energy aware & Load  Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that features the energy efficiency and self organization of  the wireless sensor networks. This protocol extends thelifetime of the network and balances the energy consumption of the nodes within the network. ELBGR considers neighbor’s energy levels, packet reception rate and the locations of the nodes for data forwarding purpose. Each node knows geographic location, energylevels and PRR of its neighbors. The proposed  algorithm selects a set of relative optimal nodes from all neighbors called Forwarding Nodes Set (FNS) in the first phase and in the next phase from FNS, theOptimal Forwarding Node (OFN) is finally selected for forwarding purpose. The proposed algorithm balances the energy levels among all the neighbors. A comparison has been made between pre-existing routing algorithms Greedy routing, EAGR, EEAR, HHEAA and the proposed one ELBGR. TheSimulation results (in OMNET++) show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of higher success rate, throughput and less number of  dead nodes and it effectively increases the lifetime of  the sensor networks. Keywords: WSN; Geographic routing; Energyefficient; Load balancing
I. INTRODUCTIONThe technological progress in the embedded systemsemerged a new network class called Wireless SensorNetworks (WSN) [1]. A WSN consists of many smallautonomous systems, called sensor nodes or motes.Sensors are the devices that make sense to some physicalchange for which they are deployed for differentDr. Muhammad Younus JavedDepartment of Computer Engineering, NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, NationalUniversity of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad,Pakistan.myjaved@ceme.nust.edu.pk applications, communicate wirelessly and cooperate withthe neighbor nodes to route the sensed informationtowards the destination. This type of communication hasdifferent characteristics as compared to cellular networksor single hop wireless networks as they don’t rely on afixed infrastructure.Many routing strategies have been introduced anddeveloped for the WSNs. These
 
strategies used in WSNare different from wired networks routing mechanisms.The schemes used for routing in WSN must not ignorethe unique inherent features of the WSNs, the maincritical issue in WSNs routing strategies development isto deal with the energy constraints and to cope with thenodes status changes (e.g. failure) that occur suddenlyresulting unpredictable changes in the network topology.The communication protocols governing the network must be able to cope with all topological changeswithout human intervention. Most of the nodes are toofar away from the sink node (node that finally collectsthe sensed information) to communicate directly.Intermediate nodes are hence used to relay the message,that’s why this type of communication is also called adhoc multi-hop communication [19].The major purpose of this research is to develop anenergy aware and energy efficient geographic routingalgorithm for the WSNs that can play an important rolein maintaining the energy balance within the network causing the prolonged life-time of the network. Ageographic routing mechanism, ELBGR (Energy &Load Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that ismuch efficient for energy efficiency, it splits the work load equally among all network nodes and avoids theholes formation than the greedy forwarding in WSNs.The proposed algorithm depicts the node that will act asthe relaying node among all one-hop neighbors of thesender node on the basis of some relative measuresrather than some specific threshold values. This way theover burden of relaying on some nodes is abandoned andthe load is divided among all the network nodes,resulting energy efficient long life network.
 
The paper is organized as follows. The Related work ispresented in section 2. The research motivation,objectives, assumptions and the proposed algorithmELBGR is described in Section 3. In Section 4 the
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May2011
proposed algorithm’s design and implementation alongwith the algorithm and flow chart is presented. Thesimulation results, comparison of proposed algorithmwith pre-existing algorithms Greedy, EEAR, EAGR,HHEAA and the results analysis is explained in Section5. Conclusions along with some suggestions for futureresearch are provided in Section 6.II. RELATED WORKIn the location-based or geographic routing [7], thelocation information is basic requirement for theneighbor nodes identification and routing. Many routingalgorithms are defined that use only local information of neighbors for route determination, these are much energyefficient than the algorithms using global routing table,that depict the whole picture of the network.Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) [8]
isdesigned to minimize the number of hops,which follows greedy forwarding algorithmalong with the perimeter forwarding strategy to
achieve successful routing.
Using greedyforwarding
when optimal next-hop nodes are notavailable, the perimeter forwarding algorithm is used onthe planar graph to choose the next-hop.
Geographicadaptive fidelity (GAF) [10] is a geographicand energy-aware routing protocol, used bothfor ad-hoc networks and WSNs. It decreasesthe redundancy in the network and turns off allunused nodes of the network. Greedy otheradaptive face routing (GOAFR) [11] is ageographic routing scheme that uses the greedyrouting along with the face routing called otheradaptive face routing. When GOAFR reachesthe local minimum point it adopts the facerouting (FR) mode to get routing efficiency forboth worst case & average case scenarios.GOAFR protocol is much better in energyefficiency. It’s time delay in data delivery andnetwork lifetime is also much better.Geographic and energy aware routing (GEAR)protocol [12] uses the
nodes’ location informationand the remaining energy level to select the neighbornode with the least overall overhead.
The estimatedcost is used for simple routing and based onnodes' remaining energy levels and its distanceto the destination node & the learned cost isused for routing around the holes. GEAR usesthe recursive geographic forwarding (for densenetwork) and the restricted blind flooding(network is not dense) to disseminate thepacket within the region. GEAR is not highlyenergy efficient, has low latency and QoS. Itperforms better for immobile networks butinefficient for mobile networks. Energy awaregreedy routing (EAGR) [15] uses the locationinformation of nodes and their powersavailable for routing purpose. In EAGR, highenergy nodes are used for forwarding andpackets are dropped when no neighbor is aliveto forward the data. EAGR protocol is muchmore energy efficient and balances the network loads very well.
Holes Healing Energy AwareAlgorithm (HEEAA) [16] is location based and energyaware routing protocol that works on average energy anddistance of nodes to overcome weak node problem inWSN. HHEAA has high throughput with reliable packetdelivery and long lived network. Efficient Energy AwareRouting (EEAR) [17] algorithm is a location based & apower-aware routing technique, it uses efficient energyaware routing mechanism to choose the neighbor nodethat has sufficient power-level and meets the distancecriteria to determine the receiving node for forwardingthe packet EEAR gives higher packet delivery rate, lessenergy consumption with the maximum network lifetime as compared to traditional routing mechanisms forthe wireless sensor networks.III. ENERGY AWARE & LOAD BALANCINGGEOGRAPHIC ROUTING (ELBGR)A. MOTIVATIONMany of the geographic routing techniques designed& developed for the WSN uses the basic idea of greedytechnique for forwarding the data, the minimum distantnode (from destination) is used for this purpose tochoose shortest path and early delivery of the packet.Hence the main problem in routing algorithms designedand used for the WSNs is that how much energy efficient[25] they are and their role to enhance the life of thenetwork. Very important feature of the WSN is that thenodes have small sized batteries, limitedly-powered &these batteries cannot be changed in practical therefore itis required to uses some ways to save the batteries powerto prolong the network life so the WSN is taken asenergy-constrained. Because batteries cannot bereplaced, communication protocols ought to be asenergy-efficient as possible. Energy-efficiency is of utmost importance, as it has very visible impact on thenetwork lifetime. It is required to develop some energyefficient routing mechanism which maintains a balanceto the overall network power and holes appearance beprevented consequently.The motivation behind this research work is to design anenergy-aware & energy-balancing geographic algorithm
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May2011
for WSNs which will be simple, easy to implement andefficient in terms of energy consumption.B. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
 
Greedy mechanism used in many geographicrouting has a major drawback that the construction of theroutes is based only on the node’s distance from thedestination and the same group of nodes is repetitivelyused for sending data from the source to the destinationif source & destination are constant. The energy-level of a node is not taken into account for data transmissionand even if the node has very low energy, the packet canbe forwarded to it resulting in the breakdown of thatoptimal path. It puts bad effect on network connectivityas there may exist some of the nodes in networks whichdepend on only these dead nodes for routing the packet.In this research many geographic/location based routingstrategies for WSNs are studied for completeunderstanding. To address the above mentionedproblems an energy-aware and load balancing greedyrouting scheme ELBGR (Energy & load balancingGeographic Routing) is designed, implemented andevaluated through simulation. The comprehensivesimulation results are compared with pre-existingrelevant routing protocols for its energy efficiency,successful data transmission and for some otherparameters. ELBGR is a simple, easy to implement andenergy-efficient algorithm, it splits the work load equallyamong all network nodes and avoids the holes formationresulting energy efficient long life network.C. ASSUMPTIONS FOR ELBGRFor the designing and implementation of theELBGR routing algorithm some assumptions are taken.Sensor nodes are considered to be static or immobilehaving fixed coordinates. The location of the nodes isdetermined by some kind of GPS system (some central-location database is used for this purpose). The energylevels and the PRR values of the nodes are known byeach node; initially both values are set 01 for each node.The topology used is irregular random topology as inreal the sensors are deployed in random style. Singledestination node is considered with already knownlocation by each node. The limited-size buffers/ queuesare used at each node for containing incoming andoutgoing message packets. Packets size is taken fixed forthe proposed system implementation.D. DESCRIPTION OF ELBGRThe major role of the proposed algorithm is theavoidance of holes formation in the network by equallydistributing the load among the nodes, no single nodedepletes its energy very soon as relatively optimal nodeis selected for forwarding purpose. Each node knowabout its own distance from sink node and its allneighbors' distance from sink node, energy level andPRR value (PRR = total packets sent by node A/ totalpackets received by node A). Based on this allinformation each node contains, the ELBGR extracts therelatively optimal node among all neighbors, first of allfinds the average distance of all nodes' distances fromthe sink/destination node, & then it calculates theaverage energy and average PRR of all neighbor nodes.After taking these measures, this algorithm selects theneighbor nodes for FNS which have average or greaterremaining energy as well as average or greater PRRvalue. It is obvious that greater energy nodes selectionfor forwarding purpose prevents the high rate of nodesdeath in the network. Nodes PRR values are important inrespect of the holes avoidance, if a node forwards all thepackets its PRR value doesn’t change (remains 1,initially set value) and the routing decision is almostenergy dependent. But when a node drops the packet dueto any reason i.e. lower energy level or queue fill, thepacket reception rate lowers down and for next packettransmission that node is avoided due to low PRR value(lower than average PRR value of all neighbors),resulting the avoidance of the hole. Neighbors havingenergy and PRR below average value are ignored so thatthe balance of energy can be maintained among allneighbors and this way of selection prevent some nodesto be selected frequently resulting in energy depletion.Therefore FNS contains only nodes having greaterenergy and PRR values. In next phase ELBGR considersonly FNS for decision making and selects the nodenearest to the target/ destination node from the set of nodes that lie in FNS. After choosing the optimalforwarding node (OFN), the packet is sent to it, thiscurrent node then makes further decision for nextforwarding node among its neighbors using ELBGRmechanism. This process continues until the destinationnode is reached. When packet is sent to a neighbor, theenergy used suppose 0.001joule is deducted from itscurrent energy level, this way the remaining energyvalue and current PRR value of each node is updatedafter each time when it forwards the packet. The newvalues are stored in the node’s memory. For nexttransmission if any neighbor node considers it forforwarding, it will check its energy and PRR values,which are if less than average values then that node willnot be considered for selection in FNS and the nodeswhich are not selected previously or having greaterenergy and PRR values are selected in FNS. UsingELBGR routing scheme the network work load is takenas the data packets which are needed to be sent to thedestination or target node, is equally distributed (allnodes are considered equally for forwarding purpose)among all nodes and almost an energy balance is alsomaintained among nodes. So the path selected may notbe the similar every time & the traffic is spread overmany nodes rather than to the specific nodes only. As aresult the sensor network is utilized for maximum timewith greater throughput in energy efficient and loadbalancing way. ELBGR algorithm tries its best to
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