(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May2011
LOAD-BALANCING GEOGRAPHIC ROUTING ALGORITHM(ELBGR) FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Nazia PerwaizDepartment of Computer Engineering, NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, NationalUniversity of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad,Pakistan.email@example.com
: The major challenges faced by wireless sensor networks are energy-efficiency and self- organization. .A thorough literature study of routing inWSNs shows that there exist so many routing protocols for WSNs, each of which has the common objective of trying to get better throughput and to extend thelifetime of the sensor network. In this research work the Location-based or Geographic routing in WSN is mainly focused for energy issues and a location based WSN routing protocol ELBGR (Energy aware & Load Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that features the energy efficiency and self organization of the wireless sensor networks. This protocol extends thelifetime of the network and balances the energy consumption of the nodes within the network. ELBGR considers neighbor’s energy levels, packet reception rate and the locations of the nodes for data forwarding purpose. Each node knows geographic location, energylevels and PRR of its neighbors. The proposed algorithm selects a set of relative optimal nodes from all neighbors called Forwarding Nodes Set (FNS) in the first phase and in the next phase from FNS, theOptimal Forwarding Node (OFN) is finally selected for forwarding purpose. The proposed algorithm balances the energy levels among all the neighbors. A comparison has been made between pre-existing routing algorithms Greedy routing, EAGR, EEAR, HHEAA and the proposed one ELBGR. TheSimulation results (in OMNET++) show that the proposed algorithm gives better performance in terms of higher success rate, throughput and less number of dead nodes and it effectively increases the lifetime of the sensor networks. Keywords: WSN; Geographic routing; Energyefficient; Load balancing
I. INTRODUCTIONThe technological progress in the embedded systemsemerged a new network class called Wireless SensorNetworks (WSN) . A WSN consists of many smallautonomous systems, called sensor nodes or motes.Sensors are the devices that make sense to some physicalchange for which they are deployed for differentDr. Muhammad Younus JavedDepartment of Computer Engineering, NUST College of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, NationalUniversity of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad,Pakistan.firstname.lastname@example.org applications, communicate wirelessly and cooperate withthe neighbor nodes to route the sensed informationtowards the destination. This type of communication hasdifferent characteristics as compared to cellular networksor single hop wireless networks as they don’t rely on afixed infrastructure.Many routing strategies have been introduced anddeveloped for the WSNs. These
strategies used in WSNare different from wired networks routing mechanisms.The schemes used for routing in WSN must not ignorethe unique inherent features of the WSNs, the maincritical issue in WSNs routing strategies development isto deal with the energy constraints and to cope with thenodes status changes (e.g. failure) that occur suddenlyresulting unpredictable changes in the network topology.The communication protocols governing the network must be able to cope with all topological changeswithout human intervention. Most of the nodes are toofar away from the sink node (node that finally collectsthe sensed information) to communicate directly.Intermediate nodes are hence used to relay the message,that’s why this type of communication is also called adhoc multi-hop communication .The major purpose of this research is to develop anenergy aware and energy efficient geographic routingalgorithm for the WSNs that can play an important rolein maintaining the energy balance within the network causing the prolonged life-time of the network. Ageographic routing mechanism, ELBGR (Energy &Load Balancing Geographic Routing) is proposed that ismuch efficient for energy efficiency, it splits the work load equally among all network nodes and avoids theholes formation than the greedy forwarding in WSNs.The proposed algorithm depicts the node that will act asthe relaying node among all one-hop neighbors of thesender node on the basis of some relative measuresrather than some specific threshold values. This way theover burden of relaying on some nodes is abandoned andthe load is divided among all the network nodes,resulting energy efficient long life network.
The paper is organized as follows. The Related work ispresented in section 2. The research motivation,objectives, assumptions and the proposed algorithmELBGR is described in Section 3. In Section 4 the