their transmitter and receiver coverage patterns,transmission power levels and co-channelinterference levels, a wireless connectivity inthe form of a random, multihop graph or Ad-hocnetwork exists between the nodes. This Ad-hoctopology may change with time as the nodesmove or adjust their transmission and receptionparameters. The nodes may be located in orairplanes, ships, trucks, cars, perhaps even onpeople or very small devices, and there may bemultiple hosts per router.
OBJECTIVE & OVERVIEW OF THEPROPOSED PROTOCOL
In this paper, we propose to design a Multi-PathRouting Protocol, which sends the packets inalternative path, which has the followingobjectives:Initially, we present a high efficient solution thatseeks to utilize idle or under-loaded nodes toreduce the effects of congestion. To work outthis, we highly enhanced the geographicalrouting to allow a source to select differentpaths to make the packet to reach thedestination. First, we propose multi-pathsolutions for geographic routing which has lesseffective results, at the end, we likely to proposeright angled biased geographical routingtechnique (RAOA), a lightweight,stateless, Geographical forwarding algorithm, ascost-effective complement to greedy routing.The above RAOA protocol routes packets instraight path i.e. 90° from the source, instead theshortest path, towards the destination.To reduce the congestion duringtransmission of packets; we propose two morecongestion control mechanisms that highlyenhance RAOA protocol.
Biased Node Packet Scatter (BNPS)
is avery light weight method mechanism thatpartially aims to transient congestion by locallysplitting the traffic along multiple paths to avoidcongested hotspots.
Node-to-Node Packet Scatter (NNPS)
isalso a mechanism but aim to transmit packets tolonger term congestion, when BPNS fails.The performance of the above twomechanism had been evaluated in term RAOAby using a high-level simulator, a packet-levelsimulator (NS-2). The results show thatRABGR is a practical and efficient multipathrouting algorithm. We have evaluated BNPSand NNPS using NS2.
2. Right Angled Biased GeographicalRouting or ANT SEARCH (RAOA)
The requirements of the RAOA algorithm areas follows. In addition, we present simulationresults that show that BGR achieves goodperformance with a low overhead.
Wireless network with coordinate based routing.To have sensor networks, we require stringentenergy and computational constraints, whichcharacterize these networks.
The requirements of the geographic routing protocol:
Low communication overhead
packets sent by the sensor nodes are very smalle.g. the maximum packet size is 29 bytes.2.
The routing algorithm musthave low computational overhead e.g. 4 kB of RAM.
nodes much maintains aminimal amount of state i.e. no per-flow or per-path state in network. In addition, to avoid thehotspots in the considered wireless networks, amulti-path algorithm should be there, that mustbe able to provide a large number of path i.e.,90°, with few common hops without increasingrouting failures, as compared to the single-pathgreedy routing.