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Performance Analysis of The RAOA Protocol With Three Routing Protocols For Various Routing Metrics

Performance Analysis of The RAOA Protocol With Three Routing Protocols For Various Routing Metrics

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Published by ijcsis
In this paper, we have proposed a new RAOA protocol (Right Angle or Ant Search). It is a reactive (on-demand) routing protocol. This is done in route reply (RREP) method. During route reply when more than one route replies are about to reach to source there are high chances that they create congestion at the last point. This congestion is a cause for possible collisions. We tried to reduce this possibility of collisions. We propose to include delay in RREP when RREP is one hop away from the source. We compared the performance of the our proposed protocol RAOA with three prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance vector (AODV), Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). We have chosen four performance metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput. The performance simulations are carried out on NS-2. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network size and simulation times. The simulation result confirms that RAOA performs well in terms of Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput.
In this paper, we have proposed a new RAOA protocol (Right Angle or Ant Search). It is a reactive (on-demand) routing protocol. This is done in route reply (RREP) method. During route reply when more than one route replies are about to reach to source there are high chances that they create congestion at the last point. This congestion is a cause for possible collisions. We tried to reduce this possibility of collisions. We propose to include delay in RREP when RREP is one hop away from the source. We compared the performance of the our proposed protocol RAOA with three prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, namely Ad hoc On Demand Distance vector (AODV), Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). We have chosen four performance metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput. The performance simulations are carried out on NS-2. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network size and simulation times. The simulation result confirms that RAOA performs well in terms of Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 05, 2011
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 ABSRACT
 In this paper, we have proposed a new RAOA protocol (Right Angle or Ant Search). It is a reactive (on-demand) routing protocol. This is done in route reply (RREP) method. During route reply when more than one route replies are about to reach to source there are high chances that they create congestion at the last point. This congestion is a cause for possible collisions. We tried to reduce this possibility of  collisions. We propose to include delay in RREP when RREP is one hop away from the source. We compared the performance of the our proposed protocol RAOA with three prominent routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, namely Ad hoc On Demand  Distance vector (AODV), Ad hoc On-demand  Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) and  Destination Sequenced Distance Vector(DSDV). We have chosen four performance metrics, such as Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput. The performance simulations are carried out on NS-2. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network size and simulation times. The simulation result confirms that RAOA performs well in terms of Average Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio, Routing Load, and Throughput.
KEYWORDS
Ad-hoc Networks, Collision, Congestion,Average Delay, Performance Analysis, Routingprotocols, Simulation.
INTRODUCTION
There has been rapidly increase in the numberof users of the wireless communications, fromthe satellite communication to the homewireless personal area network, over the last fewyears. Wireless communication has gained suchpopularity because of the ability of the wirelessnode to communicate with the rest of the worldwhile being mobile. But the presence of a fixedsupporting structure limits the adaptability of wireless systems. Wireless networks cangenerally be classified as wireless fixednetworks and wireless ad-hoc networks.Wireless LANs and cellular network can beconsidered as infrastructure aided wireless fixednetwork. Mobile Ad-hoc network can beconsidered as a special type of wireless ad hocnetwork formed without any infrastructure orany standard services. The multi-hop support inad-hoc networks make it possible tocommunicate between nodes outside directradio range of one another, which makes itdifferent from wireless LANs.
INTRODUCTION TO MOBILE AD-HOCNETWORKS (MANET)
A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is acollection of wireless nodes that candynamically be set up anywhere and anytimewithout using any pre-existing network infrastructure. It is defined as an autonomoussystem of mobiles nodes. Mobile hostsconnected to wireless links are free to moverandomly and often act as routers at the sametime. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are emerging asthe next generation of networks. Mobiles nodesare capable of transmitting the packets to thenodes which are in proximity. If a mobile nodehas packet to send to other mobile nodes, whichare out of its range, then the nodes within itsrange forwards packets to the next node(s) untilpacket reaches the specified destination. This iswhy MANETs are also called mobile multihopwireless networks. MANETs can be setupbetween few nodes or can be extended byconnecting to fixed network. The system mayoperate in isolation, or interface with a fixednetwork. MANET nodes are equipped withwireless transmitters and receivers usingantennas which may be omni directional(broadcast), highly-directional (point-to-point),or some combination thereof. At a given pointin time, depending on the nodes positions andPERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THE RAOA PROTOCOLWITH THREE ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR VARIOUS ROUTING METRICS
Lt. Dr. S Santhosh Baboo, Reader V J Chakravarthy
P.G. Research Dept of Com. Science Research ScholarD G Vaishnav College, Dravidian UniversityArumbakkam, Chennai 106. chakku_vjc@yahoo.co.in
 
224http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
their transmitter and receiver coverage patterns,transmission power levels and co-channelinterference levels, a wireless connectivity inthe form of a random, multihop graph or Ad-hocnetwork exists between the nodes. This Ad-hoctopology may change with time as the nodesmove or adjust their transmission and receptionparameters. The nodes may be located in orairplanes, ships, trucks, cars, perhaps even onpeople or very small devices, and there may bemultiple hosts per router.
OBJECTIVE & OVERVIEW OF THEPROPOSED PROTOCOL
 A. Objectives
In this paper, we propose to design a Multi-PathRouting Protocol, which sends the packets inalternative path, which has the followingobjectives:Initially, we present a high efficient solution thatseeks to utilize idle or under-loaded nodes toreduce the effects of congestion. To work outthis, we highly enhanced the geographicalrouting to allow a source to select differentpaths to make the packet to reach thedestination. First, we propose multi-pathsolutions for geographic routing which has lesseffective results, at the end, we likely to proposeright angled biased geographical routingtechnique (RAOA), a lightweight,stateless, Geographical forwarding algorithm, ascost-effective complement to greedy routing.The above RAOA protocol routes packets instraight path i.e. 90° from the source, instead theshortest path, towards the destination.To reduce the congestion duringtransmission of packets; we propose two morecongestion control mechanisms that highlyenhance RAOA protocol.
 Biased Node Packet Scatter (BNPS)
 
is avery light weight method mechanism thatpartially aims to transient congestion by locallysplitting the traffic along multiple paths to avoidcongested hotspots.
 Node-to-Node Packet Scatter (NNPS)
 
isalso a mechanism but aim to transmit packets tolonger term congestion, when BPNS fails.The performance of the above twomechanism had been evaluated in term RAOAby using a high-level simulator, a packet-levelsimulator (NS-2). The results show thatRABGR is a practical and efficient multipathrouting algorithm. We have evaluated BNPSand NNPS using NS2.
2. Right Angled Biased GeographicalRouting or ANT SEARCH (RAOA)
The requirements of the RAOA algorithm areas follows. In addition, we present simulationresults that show that BGR achieves goodperformance with a low overhead.
 Design goals
Wireless network with coordinate based routing.To have sensor networks, we require stringentenergy and computational constraints, whichcharacterize these networks.
The requirements of the geographic routing protocol:
1.
 Low communication overhead 
 
packets sent by the sensor nodes are very smalle.g. the maximum packet size is 29 bytes.2.
Simplicity
The routing algorithm musthave low computational overhead e.g. 4 kB of RAM.
3.
 Low state
 
nodes much maintains aminimal amount of state i.e. no per-flow or per-path state in network. In addition, to avoid thehotspots in the considered wireless networks, amulti-path algorithm should be there, that mustbe able to provide a large number of path i.e.,90°, with few common hops without increasingrouting failures, as compared to the single-pathgreedy routing.
225http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 Explanation of the Right AngledBiased Geographical Routing (RAOA)
The main idea in our solution is toreduce the congestion during the transmission of packets form source to destination, for that weinserted a
“BIAS” 
i.e. the angle in each packet,which determines the straight line path from thesource so that the packets move towards thedestination. Here the term bias is a measureangle of which the packets take from the sourcefrom greedy route and also indicates the side of deviation. In our discussion, the term bias istreated at each hop as an angle i.e., 90°. Insteadof routing greedily towards the destination. Outproposed protocol “RAOA” routes greedilytowards the point P2 (target point) situated at apredefined distance from the current node pointP1 such that the angle between the lines P1andP2 is equal to the bias i.e angle 90° and finallythe P3 node receives the packets. If the sendingnode doesn’t find any node at 90º, instantly itwill search (Ant Search) for the node which isvery near to that node. Once it finds the verynearest node, it will send the packetscontinuously. Then that node finds the othernode at 90° and sends the packets.
Figure 1: RAOA Forwarding
 
Minimising Congestion in WirelessNetworks
In wireless networks, Congestion occurswhen the wireless area around them is busy.With networks congestion is mostly situated atthe border of the network, with point to pointcommunication congestion usually builds in thecenter. So avoid the congestion in the wirelessnetworks, the way should be followed, i.e., weallow packets to route on alternate paths. Thistype of routing avoid the congestion is busy areain the wireless networks.
BNPS – Biased Node Packet Scatter
BNPS splits flows close to the congestion point.Each node monitors the congested status of allits neighbours and splits the flows that are goingtowards a congested neighbour, if the node itself is congestion. The scattered packets contain biasof 90°, such that the modified paths quicklymove away from the original path.
NNPS – Node – to – Node PacketScatter
If BPNS cannot successfully support theaggregate traffic, it will only scatter packets to awider area or amplifying the effects of congestion collapse due to its longer paths.
Evaluation of BNPS and NNPS
In this section we present simulationresults obtained through NS-2 simulations. Weuse three main metrics for out measurements:throughput increase, packet delivery ratio anddelay among flow.We ran tests on a network of 20 nodes,distributed uniformly on a grid in a square are of 1000m x 1000m. We assume events occuruniformly at random in a geographical area; thenode closest to the event triggers acommunication burst to a uniformly selecteddestination. To emulate this model we select aone set of random source-destination pair andrun 20 second synchronous communicationsamong the selected pair. The data we present isaveraged over hundreds of such iterations. Theparameters are summarized in Table 1.
P2P1P4P5P6P3
226http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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