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A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints

A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints

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Published by ijcsis
Singular point (SP) detection is one of the most crucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and is used for fingerprint classification, alignment and matching. This paper presents a multistage approach for detection and elimination of spurious singular points especially in degraded fingerprints. The approach comprises three stages. In the first stage, two different methods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliability measure, are independently employed on the same image to generate two sets of candidate singular points. The second stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, which improves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. In the third stage, the spurious singular points are detected and thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprint database at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental results show that the approach effectively eliminates the spurious SPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotated fingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also compared with one of the state-of-the-art techniques, the experimental results prove its superiority over the later.
Singular point (SP) detection is one of the most crucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and is used for fingerprint classification, alignment and matching. This paper presents a multistage approach for detection and elimination of spurious singular points especially in degraded fingerprints. The approach comprises three stages. In the first stage, two different methods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliability measure, are independently employed on the same image to generate two sets of candidate singular points. The second stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, which improves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. In the third stage, the spurious singular points are detected and thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of the two sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprint database at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental results show that the approach effectively eliminates the spurious SPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotated fingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also compared with one of the state-of-the-art techniques, the experimental results prove its superiority over the later.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011
 A Multistage Detection and Elimination of Spurious Singular Points in Degraded Fingerprints
 
Zia Saquib, Santosh Kumar Soni, Sweta Suhasaria
 
Center for Development of Advanced ComputingMumbai, Maharashtra 400049,
 
Indiasaquib@cdacmumbai.insantoshsoni@cdacmumbai.inswetas@cdacmumbai.in
Dimple Parekh, Rekha Vig
 
NMIMS University,Mumbai, Maharashtra 400056,
 
Indiadimple.parekh@nmims.edurekha.vig@nmims.edu
Abstract
 — 
Singular point (SP) detection is one of the mostcrucial phases in fingerprint authentication systems and isused for fingerprint classification, alignment andmatching. This paper presents a multistage approach fordetection and elimination of spurious singular pointsespecially in degraded fingerprints. The approachcomprises three stages. In the first stage, two differentmethods, viz., quadrant change and orientation reliabilitymeasure, are independently employed on the same imageto generate two sets of candidate singular points. Thesecond stage performs the multiscale analysis on a set of candidate SPs located by reliability method, whichimproves the approximation by reducing the list of SPs. Inthe third stage, the spurious singular points are detectedand thereby eliminated by taking the intersection of thetwo sets of SPs. This model is tested on a proprietary(Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor) fingerprintdatabase at 500 ppi resolution. The experimental resultsshow that the approach effectively eliminates the spuriousSPs from the noisy and highly translated/rotatedfingerprint images. The proposed scheme is also comparedwith one of the state-of-the-art techniques, theexperimental results prove its superiority over the later.
 
 Keywords-
Spurious Singular Points, Multiscale Analysis,Orientation Consistency, Quadrant Change, Reliability, Minimum Inertia, Maximum Inertia.
 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 The performance of fingerprint authentication system hascome a long way but it is still influenced by many factors, like:inaccurate detection of singular points (core and delta). Poor-quality and noisy fingerprint images mostly result in false ormissing singular points (SPs), which generally results indegradation of the overall performance of the authenticationsystems. This paper presents a three-stage approach, whichprimarily focuses on the detection and elimination of spuriousSPs for all types of fingerprint images, especially noisy images.This paper puts forward an effective way to locate a uniquereference point consistently and accurately using tri-methodfusion scheme. Method-A works on the quadrant changeinformation, whereas, Method-B uses pixel-wise reliabilitymeasure of the orientation field followed by multiscale analysisto compute candidate SPs. Intersection of methods A and Bgives the genuine set of SPs. These methods, the proposedscheme and its comparison with one of the state-of-the-arttechniques are explained in detail in section II. Experimentalresults are discussed in sections III, followed by conclusion insection IV.II.
 
T
HE
P
ROPOSED
S
CHEME AND
I
TS
K
EY
C
OMPONENTS
 
 A.
 
Quadrant Change: Method-A
As per K. Kryszczuk and A. Drygajlo (2006)[2],
a singular pointis the location where the general ridge orientation becomesdiscontinuous. Informally, this can be stated as the area whereridges oriented rightwards change to leftwards and those thatwere oriented upwards turn downwards, and opposite. Thisinformation can be extracted from the quadrant change of theaveraged square gradients. The orthogonal gradientcomponents in the x and y directions are considered separately.In general, each pair of corresponding gradient componentsmanifests the gradient quadrant change by the change of sign.The sign maps PM
x
and PM
y
are computed using the Eq. (1):We need to locate points in whose respective local ridgegradients change sign in both x and y directions. These pointsare obtained by computing the intersection of the two sets of such points for which the sign of the y-directional and x-directional (respectively) gradient component changes, asshown in Eq. (2):The operator
edge
in Eq. (2) denotes any edge detector thatworks on binary images, and [
 x
sp
,
 y
sp
] are the points where twoquadrants change boundaries intersect, as shown in Figure 1.[
 x
sp
,
 y
sp
] are considered as SPs, as shown in Figure 2. Thismethod works well with good quality gray-level images, butthe moment image quality degrades, it starts resulting inspurious SPs and eventually becomes ineffective, as shown inFigure 2.(1)(2)
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011
 B.
 
Orientation Reliability Measure: Method B
As per Z. Saquib and S. K. Soni (2011)[6], M. Khalil, D.Muhammad (2010)[5],
the raw fingerprint image is first filteredusing Gabor filter. Then, 'reliability' of ridge orientation mapis calculated, followed by the calculation of the area of moment of inertia about the orientation axis (the min. inertia)and an axis perpendicular (the max. inertia), as given in Eq.(3) and (4):
min_inertia(x, y) = (((Gyy + Gxx) - (Gxx - Gyy
) * φ'
x
) - (Gxy *
φ'
y
))/2
 
max_inerita(x, y) = Gyy + Gxx
 – 
min_inertia(x, y)
 
where,
φ'
x
and
φ'
y
are cosine and sine of doubled angles (ridgeorientations). The reliability measure is given by Eq. (5):
Reliability Measure = 1.0
 – 
min_inertia/max_inertia
 
All such pixels with reliability measure below an empiricallydetermined threshold (here, it is 0.035) are considered as thecandidate SPs. The pixels with deep blue shades are thepossible SPs, as shown in Figure 3, and the corresponding SPsare shown in Figure 4, which is inclusive of both genuine andspurious.
C.
 
 MultiScale Analysis
As per T. Van and H. Lee (2009)[1],
a multiscale analysis(see Figure 5) of orientation consistency is used to search thelocal minimum orientation consistency from large scale to finescale. The orientation consistency-based technique can besummarized as follows:1)
 
Compute the orientation consistency Cons(s) of each block based on the outside 8s surrounding blocks of its (2s+1) x(2s+1) neighborhood.2)
 
Find the minimum orientation consistency denoted asCons
min
(s). Compute candidate threshold as,3)
 
Select the blocks if their Cons(s) < T.4)
 
Compute dx(s) and dy(s), and select the blocks with bothdx(s) and dy(s) larger than 0 as the candidate blocks inthe next finer scale:
Figure 1. Horizontal and Vertical maps.Figure 2. Genuine and Spurious SPs based onQuadrant Change Information.
(4)
 
(3)(5)
Figure 3. Reliability ImageFigure 4. Genuine and Spurious SPs based on Reliability Measure.
(6)
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No.5, May 2011
5)
 
If no candidate blocks for the reference point are located,let T = T + 0.01, go to step 3).6)
 
Repeat steps 1), 2), 3), 4), and 5) in the selected candidateblocks with s = s-1 until s = 1.7)
 
Locate the block with minimum orientation consistencyCons(1) from the selected finest scale blocks as theunique reference point.We have
performed
multiscale analysis over the set of SPsgiven by reliability measure stage for better approximation of the genuine SPs, as explained in sub-section D. Multiscaleanalysis helps in reducing the list of SPs further by isolatingand removing the false SPs.
 D.
 
Proposed Approach: A Multistage Detection and  Elimination of Spurious SPs
The
proposed
approach, as shown in Figure 6, comprises thestate-of-the-art methods (with some modifications/tuning)presented in sub-sections A, B and C. Firstly, the two sets of candidate SPs are generated using the methods: i) quadrantchange information and ii) reliability measure of the orientationfield. In order to have better approximation, multiscale analysisis performed over the candidate SPs from reliability measure,which reduces (or minimizes) the list by identifying, andthereby ignoring most of such pixels which are not likely to bethe SPs. Finally, the genuine SPs are confirmed by taking theintersection of the two sets of SPs from the above two methods,which then filters out the false SPs, if any, leaving behindgenuine SPs. These stages are shown together in Figure 6. Theexperimental results are shown in Figure 7 and 8. In Figure 8,first column depicts the raw images, second column shows theresults using Quality Change and Reliability methods, thirdcolumn displays SPs by Quadrant Change Information (blue),Reliability Measure (red), Multiscale Analysis (green) and thefourth column presents results from the proposed scheme(genuine SPs are depicted by orange color). Few improvedcases are also presented in Figure 9, where the raw imageschosen are relatively of much poorer quality than the images inFigure 8.III.
 
E
XPERIMENTAL
R
ESULTS
 Proprietary (Lumidigm Venus V100 OEM Module sensor)dataset has been chosen as test data to evaluate the impact of the proposed multistage scheme for detection and eliminationof spurious SPs. The scheme is implemented in MATLAB. Theexperimental results show that this approach satisfactorilyimproves the accuracy of detection of correct singular points innoisy and highly transformed (translated/rotated) fingerprintimages. Only select cases (highly degraded/translated/rotated)have been chosen to measure the effectiveness of the approach.Few of them are presented in Figure 7 and 8. Some improvedcases are also displayed, as shown in Figure 9, where severelydistorted/poorly overlapped fingerprint images are chosen,which present real challenges in the fields.IV.
 
C
ONCLUSION
 Genuine SPs are very crucial towards attaining highaccuracy and performance of the authentication systems. Thus,spurious SPs need to be completely removed. In this paper, amultistage scheme is proposed for detection and elimination of spurious singular points, especially in highly degraded,translated and rotated fingerprint images. Experimental resultsclearly show that the three methods in combination effectivelyremove (or minimize) the spurious singular points. The schemeis tested against some select difficult cases. Also, this method(fourth column in Figure 8), upon comparison with theapproach presented by
Z. Saquib, S. K. Soni (2011)
(secondcolumn in Figure 8)
,
is found better.A
CKNOWLEDGMENT
 We wish to extend our sincere thanks to the Department of Information Technology (DIT), Ministry of Communicationsand Information Technology, Govt. of India, for assigning us abiometric project
: “BharatiyaAFIS”. This work is carried out as
a part of the same project.R
EFERENCES
 
[1]
 
T. Van and H. Lee,“An efficient algorithm fo
r fingerprint reference-
 point detection”, IEEE 2009.
 [2]
 
K. Kryszczuk and A. Drygajlo
, “
Singular point detection in fingerprintsusing quadrant change information
”,
The 18th International Conferenceon Pattern Recognition (ICPR'06), 2006.[3]
 
D. Maltoni, D. Maio, A. Jain, and S. Prabhakar, Handbook of Fingerprint Recognition. New York: Springer, 2003.[4]
 
L. Hong, Y. Wan, and A. Jain,
“Fingerprint i
mage enhancement:algorithm and performance evaluation
, IEEE Transactions On PatternAnalysis And Machine Intelligence, Vol. 20, No. 8, 1998.[5]
 
M. Khalil, D. Muhammad, M.
Khan, Mohammed, “Singular 
pointsdetection using fingerprint orientation field r
eliability”, International
Journal of Physical Sciences Vol. 5(4), pp. 352-357, 2010.[6]
 
Z. Saquib, S. Soni, S. Suhasaria, D. Parekh,
R. Vig, “A fault
-tolerant
approach for detection of singular points in noisy fingerprint images”,
International Journal of Computer Security Issues, Volume 8, 2011.
 
[7]
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclidean_distance[8]
 
Kovesi PD (2008). MATLAB and Octave Functions for ComputerVision and Image Processing, in School of Computer Science andSoftware Engineering, The University of Western Australia. Availablefrom http://www.csse.uwa.edu.au/~pk/research/matlabfns/.
(7)(8)
 
Figure 5. The multiscale analysis of orientation consistency.

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