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A Matlab Implementation of The Back-Propagation Approach for Reusability of Software Components

A Matlab Implementation of The Back-Propagation Approach for Reusability of Software Components

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Published by ijcsis
Before the age of the computer, there were many mathematical problems that humans could not easily solve, or more precisely (and this distinction is extremely important) humans were too slow in solving. Computers enabled these often simple but slow and tedious tasks to be performed quickly and accurately. The first problems solved with computers were calculating equations to resolve important physical problems, and later displaying a nice GUI, making word processors and so on. However, there are many common tasks which are trivial for humans to perform (without even any conscious effort) yet which are extremely difficult to formulate in a way that a computer may easily solve.
Before the age of the computer, there were many mathematical problems that humans could not easily solve, or more precisely (and this distinction is extremely important) humans were too slow in solving. Computers enabled these often simple but slow and tedious tasks to be performed quickly and accurately. The first problems solved with computers were calculating equations to resolve important physical problems, and later displaying a nice GUI, making word processors and so on. However, there are many common tasks which are trivial for humans to perform (without even any conscious effort) yet which are extremely difficult to formulate in a way that a computer may easily solve.

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 05, 2011
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
A Matlab Implementation Of The Back-Propagation Approach for Reusability of SoftwareComponents
Meenakshi Sharma
1
 Sri Sai College Of Engg. & Tech., Pathankot
2
HOD CSE
2
 Mss.s.c.e.t@gmail.com 
Priyanka Kakkar
2
Sri Sai College Of Engg. & Tech., Pathankot
2
Mtech CSE4
th
sem
2
 pinkudiya@yahoo.co.in
2
 
Dr. Parvinder Sandhu
3
Rayat and Bhara College OF Engg. And Tech.
3
HOD CSE
3
 
 Abstract
-
Before the age of the computer, there were many mathematical problems that humans could not easily solve, or more precisely (and this distinction is extremelyimportant) humans were too slow in solving. Computersenabled these often simple but slow and tedious tasks to be performed quickly and accurately. The first problems solved with computers were calculating equations to resolveimportant physical problems, and later displaying a niceGUI, making word processors and so on. However, there are many common tasks which are trivial for humans to perform(without even any conscious effort) yet which are extremely difficult to formulate in a way that a computer may easily solve.
Keywords:- Reusability,JISC,GUI, back-propagationalgorithm.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
(H 
 EADING
1)
 Generalising the Widrow-Hoff learning rule to multiple-layernetworks and non-linear[1][2] differentiable transfer functionscreated back propagation. Input vectors and the correspondingoutput vectors are used to train a network until it canapproximate a function, associate input vectors with specificoutput vectors, or classify input vectors in an appropriate wayas defined by you.Networks with biases, a sigmoid layer, and a linear outputlayer are capable of approximating any function[3] with afinite number of discontinuities. Standard back propagation isa gradient descent algorithm, as is the Widrow-Hoff learningrule. There are a number of variations [4][5][6]on the basicalgorithm, which are based on other standard optimisationtechniques, such as conjugate gradient and Newton methods.The term back propagation refers to the process bywhich derivatives of network error, with respect to network weights and biases, can be computed can compute derivativesof network error. This process can be used with a number[7]of different optimisation strategies. The architecture of amultilayer network is not completely constrained by theproblem[2] to be solved. The number of inputs to the network is constrained by the problem, and the number of neurons inthe output layer is constrained by the number of outputsrequired by the problem. However, the number of layersbetween network inputs and the output layer and the sizes of the layers are up to the user.A unit in the output layer determines its activity by followinga two step procedure.
298http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
 
First, it computes the total weighted input xj, usingthe formula:where
 y
i
 
is the activity level of the jth unit in the previouslayer and
ij
is the weight of the connection between the ithand the jth unit.
 
Next, the unit calculates the activity
 y
 j
 
using somefunction of the total weighted input. Typically we use thesigmoid function:Once the activities of all output units have been determined,the network computes the error E, which is defined by theexpression:where
 y
 j
 
is the activity level of the jth unit in the top layer and
 j
is the[8] desired output of the jth unit.The back-propagation algorithm consists of four steps:1. Compute how fast the error changes as the activity of anoutput unit is changed. This error derivative (EA) is thedifference between the actual and the desired activity.2. Compute how fast the error changes as the total inputreceived by an output unit is changed. This quantity (EI) is theanswer from step 1 multiplied by the rate at which the outputof a unit changes as its total input is changed.3. Compute how fast the error changes as a weight on theconnection into an output unit is changed. This quantity (EW)is the answer from step 2 multiplied by the activity level of theunit from which the connection emanates.4. Compute how fast the error changes as the activity of a unitin the previous layer is changed. This crucial step[9] allowsback propagation to be applied to multilayer networks. Whenthe activity of a unit in the previous layer changes, it affectsthe activities of all the output units to which it is connected. Soto compute the overall effect on the error, we add together allthese separate effects on output units. But each effect is simpleto calculate. It is the answer in step 2 multiplied by the weighton the connection to that output unit.By using steps 2 and 4, we can convert the EAs of onelayer of units into EAs for the previous layer. Thisprocedure can be repeated to get the EAs for as manyprevious layers as desired. Once we know the EA of aunit, we can use steps 2 and 3 to compute the[10]EWs on its incoming connections.2.Methodology:
 
 A.
 
Pilot interviews
Early interviews were conducted with three projects on a pilotbasis to allow us to refine our interview structure and todevelop and modify our explicit methodology.
 B.
 
 Detailed Evaluation Criteria document 
In close consultation with JISC programme staff, we drafted,amended, and agreed this document, which defines thesoftware evaluation criteria to be used to evaluate the 22DeLeTools projects. This document, which is available on theJISC website, is closely related to the accompanyingEvaluation Methods and Tools document mentioned below:the criteria document describes the tasks to be done and whatcriteria we use to [11]approach them, and the methodsdocument describes how we should do it.
C.
 
 Detailed Evaluation Methods and Tools document 
Similarly, we prepared this document, which details themethods used to assess, test, and evaluate the software outputsof the 22 projects in the DeLeTools strand of the JISC e-Learning Programme. Using the Software Quality Evaluation
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2011
Criteria[12] Document as a high level guide, the DetailedEvaluation Methods and Tools document outlines the specificmethods proposed and references the criteria that thesemethods address. The latter document states:Our approach is based not only on the quality standards towhich JISC require the 22 projects to adhere and theindividual standards which have been identified by theprojects themselves, but also the maintainability, extendibilityand the general robustness of the 22 projects' code andsoftware. Code review will be a key focus of the evaluation of each project. Other evaluation and testing methods will varyaccording to the project and its outputs.
 D.
 
Summary of methods used 
We used the following methods:1. Brief Online Study.2. Face to face interview with project staff and follow up byemail and phone (full accounts of interviews appear inAppendix).3. Selective checking of sections of code (per-projectsummary of code checking results appears below). [13]4. Lab testing the software on various platforms and in variousconditions (per-project summary of test results appears below– full results have been made available to projects and toprogramme staff).5. Usability walkthrough and application of heuristics (per-project summary of usability results appears below – fullresults have been made available to projects and to programmestaff).6. Brief and selective desk audit of project documentation,version tracking, and testing procedures (the results of theaudit were fed into the software evaluation and gave the testersinsight into which areas of the tool might need particular[14]attention, also alerting the testing team to any issues and bugsprior to testing and informing some project-specific questionsasked during the interviews).
 II.
 
C
RITERIA USED IN EVALUATION
The criteria used in the evaluation[15] and a brief summary of the measures or "questions asked" appears below.
 A.
 
 Match of actual software output to planned output  Measures
 
Are the outputs materially different from those planned? Arethey so delayed that the project will not, or is unlikely to,deliver those outputs?
 B.
 
Use of quality plan Measures
 
Has the quality plan been completed and followed? Has itbeen used to aid implementing the JISC Software QualityAssurance Policy? Has it been updated? Has it been used increative[16] and unforeseen ways?
C.
 
Compliance with the JISC Open Source Policy Measures
 
The (draft) JISC Open Source Policy (May 2004) itself detailsthe necessary areas of compliance.
 D.
 
Compliance with Open Standards Measures
 
Have the Open Standards outlined in the quality plan beenused? If not, have other Open Standards been used?
 E.
 
Quality control procedures Measures
 
Are there any documented formal or informal quality controlprocedures? Is there evidence of them being used? Can wereproduce testing procedures? Are issues and changes beingdocumented?
F.
 
Project specific documentation Measures
 
In addition to the project plan and quality plan, we asked eachproject to give us access to:• The technical specification of their product• a summary of their testing procedures• a copy of their test plan• reports from version tracking software• code documentation. [17]It was anticipated that there would be little or no end-userdocumentation, and that few projects would have a completetechnical specification document.3.Results:
300http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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