Problem 1: Post transcriptional modification to the 3'-end of eukaryoticmRNAs
What is added to the 3'-end of many eukaryotic mRNAs after transcription?
Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes
Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes results in an mRNA precursor molecule thatis extensively processed in the cell nucleus.When eukaryotic nuclear genes for proteins are transcribed by RNA polymerase, the productis a precursor RNA (pre-mRNA) that is further processed in the nucleus before transport tothe cytoplasm for translation. The important processing steps are the following:1.
. A modified G-nucleotide, termed a "cap," is added to the 5'-end of most mRNA.The cap is retained in mRNA and functions in ribosome binding and mRNA stability.2.
. A tail of A-nucleotides, generally 100-200 long, is added to the 3'-endof most eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. The poly A tail, which is not coded in the DNA, is alsoretained in the mRNA exported to the cytoplasm.3.
. The pre-mRNA transcripts often contain introns, which are noncodingsequences that interrupt the coding regions known as exons. Introns are removed and exonsare joined together by the spliceosome in the nucleus.
a poly A tailA tail of A-nucleotides, generally 100-200 long, is added to the 3'-end of most eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. The poly A tail, which is not coded in the DNA, is also retained in the mRNAexported to the cytoplasm.