McCall 1Kevin McCallE419TraversMetamorphosis Research Paper Kafka: An Unofficial Founder of Ego Psychology³When Gregor Samsa woke up one morning from unsettling dreams, he found himself changed in his bed into a monstrous vermin.´ (Franz Kafka 3) With this line, Kafka opens hisshort novel,
; a short novel in which, through the clever literal use of a phraseof the day, reveals a truth of the human mind.
is Kafka¶s exploration of the birth of psychoanalytic theory, putting into word and story the dark mixture of a human mindunder crisis: the same ideas that Sigmund Freud, the blooming psychological theorist of the time,would rename 8 years later into the cornerstone trinity of Ego Psychology: Id, Ego, and Super-Ego.Freud and Kafka, although not directly associated with each other, are intertwined in their beliefs of the human psyche; directly in their thoughts and publications, and through the analysesof their works. In 1911, Freud published an essay,
Formulations on the Two Principles of Mental Functioning
, which is the first publication in which Freud, or anyone, created and used the ideaof Ego and instinct, creating two separate parties of the mind. He defined the concept as therational part of the mind (the Ego) warring with the pleasure (or, more commonly referred to assex) drive of man¶s inner mind, with the pleasure principle being unconscious and the Ego beingrational, conscious thought. Seemingly unrelated,
was published a few yearslater in 1915.
drove literary critics into deep discussions on the short novel;enough discussion for Stekel, Freud¶s top pupil, to devote a few paragraphs to
in his essay
Pathological Disturbances of the Instinctual and Affective Life
, published in 1917. Stekel had his opinion, ³diagnosing it (The Metamorphosis) as a zooanthropic