Conservation of massConservation of momentumConservation of energyEntropy inequality
SolidsStress · DeformationCompatibilityFinite strain · Infinitesimal strainElasticity (linear) · PlasticityBending · Hooke's lawFailure theoryFracture mechanics
FluidsFluid statics · Fluid dynamicsSurface tension Navier–Stokes equationsViscosity: Newtonian, Non-Newtonian
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is the study of the deformation of solids that touch eachother at one or more points.
The physical and mathematical formulation of the subject is built upon the mechanics of materials and continuum mechanicsand focuses on computations involving elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic bodies instatic or dynamic contact. Central aspects in contact mechanics are the pressures and adhesion acting perpendicular to the contacting bodies' surfaces,the normal direction, and the frictional stresses acting tangentially between thesurfaces. This page focuses mainly on the normal direction, i.e. on frictionlesscontact mechanics. Frictional contact mechanics is discussed separately.Contact mechanics is foundational to the field of mechanical engineering; it provides necessary information for the safe and energy efficient design of technical systems and for the study of tribology and indentation hardness.Principles of contacts mechanics can be applied in areas such as locomotivewheel-rail contact, coupling devices, braking systems, tires, bearings,combustion engines, mechanical linkages, gasket seals, metalworking, metalforming, ultrasonic welding, electrical contacts, and many others. Currentchallenges faced in the field may include stress analysis of contact and couplingmembers and the influence of lubrication and material design on friction andwear. Applications of contact mechanics further extend into the micro- andnanotechnological realm.The original work in contact mechanics dates back to 1882 with the publicationof the paper "On the contact of elastic solids"
("Ueber die Berührung fester elastischer Körper" (http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/no_cache/dms/load/img/?IDDOC=251917) ) by Heinrich Hertz. Hertz was attempting to understandhow the optical properties of multiple, stacked lenses might change with theforce holding them together. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localizedstresses that develop as two curved surfaces come in contact and deformslightly under the imposed loads. This amount of deformation is dependent onthe modulus of elasticity of the material in contact. It gives the contact stress asa function of the normal contact force, the radii of curvature of both bodies andthe modulus of elasticity of both bodies. Hertzian contact stress forms thefoundation for the equations for load bearing capabilities and fatigue life in bearings, gears, and any other bodies where two surfaces are in contact.
1 History2 Non-adhesive contact2.1 Assumptions in Hertzian theory2.2 Analytical solution techniques2.3 Numerical solution techniques
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