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Hertz Pressure

Hertz Pressure

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08/17/2013

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Continuum mechanicsLaws
Conservation of massConservation of momentumConservation of energyEntropy inequality
Solid mechanics
SolidsStress · DeformationCompatibilityFinite strain · Infinitesimal strainElasticity (linear) · PlasticityBending · Hooke's lawFailure theoryFracture mechanics
Frictionless
/Frictional
ContactmechanicsFluid mechanics
FluidsFluid statics · Fluid dynamicsSurface tension Navier–Stokes equationsViscosity: Newtonian, Non-Newtonian
Rheology
ViscoelasticitySmart fluids:MagnetorheologicalElectrorheological
Contact mechanics
Contact mechanics
is the study of the deformation of solids that touch eachother at one or more points.
[1][2]
The physical and mathematical formulation of the subject is built upon the mechanics of materials and continuum mechanicsand focuses on computations involving elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic bodies instatic or dynamic contact. Central aspects in contact mechanics are the pressures and adhesion acting perpendicular to the contacting bodies' surfaces,the normal direction, and the frictional stresses acting tangentially between thesurfaces. This page focuses mainly on the normal direction, i.e. on frictionlesscontact mechanics. Frictional contact mechanics is discussed separately.Contact mechanics is foundational to the field of mechanical engineering; it provides necessary information for the safe and energy efficient design of technical systems and for the study of tribology and indentation hardness.Principles of contacts mechanics can be applied in areas such as locomotivewheel-rail contact, coupling devices, braking systems, tires, bearings,combustion engines, mechanical linkages, gasket seals, metalworking, metalforming, ultrasonic welding, electrical contacts, and many others. Currentchallenges faced in the field may include stress analysis of contact and couplingmembers and the influence of lubrication and material design on friction andwear. Applications of contact mechanics further extend into the micro- andnanotechnological realm.The original work in contact mechanics dates back to 1882 with the publicationof the paper "On the contact of elastic solids"
[3]
("Ueber die Berührung fester elastischer Körper" (http://gdz.sub.uni-goettingen.de/no_cache/dms/load/img/?IDDOC=251917) ) by Heinrich Hertz. Hertz was attempting to understandhow the optical properties of multiple, stacked lenses might change with theforce holding them together. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localizedstresses that develop as two curved surfaces come in contact and deformslightly under the imposed loads. This amount of deformation is dependent onthe modulus of elasticity of the material in contact. It gives the contact stress asa function of the normal contact force, the radii of curvature of both bodies andthe modulus of elasticity of both bodies. Hertzian contact stress forms thefoundation for the equations for load bearing capabilities and fatigue life in bearings, gears, and any other bodies where two surfaces are in contact.
Contents
1 History2 Non-adhesive contact2.1 Assumptions in Hertzian theory2.2 Analytical solution techniques2.3 Numerical solution techniques
6/8/2011Contact mechanics - Wikipedia, the freen.wikipedia.org//Contact_mechanics1/18

FerrofluidsRheometry · Rheometer
Scientists
Bernoulli · Cauchy · Hooke Navier · Newton · StokesStresses in a contact area loaded simultaneouslywith a normal and a tangential force. Stresseswere made visible using photoelasticity.
2.4 Adhesive contact3 Classical solutions for non-adhesive contact problems3.1 Point contact on a (2D) half-plane3.2 Line contact on a (2D) half-plane3.2.1 Normal loading over a region (a,b)3.2.2 Shear loading over a region (a,b)3.3 Point contact on a (3D) half-space3.4 Contact between a Sphere and an Elastic Half-Space3.5 Contact between two spheres3.6 Contact between Two Crossed Cylinders of Equal Radius3.7 Contact between a Rigid Cylinder and an Elastic Half-Space3.8 Contact between a Rigid Conical Indenter and an ElasticHalf-Space3.9 Contact between Two Cylinders with Parallel Axes3.10 Contact between Rough Surfaces4 Successive theories for adhesive contact4.1 Bradley model for rigid contact4.2 Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model for elastic contact4.3 Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) model for elasticcontact4.4 Tabor coefficient4.5 Maugis-Dugdale model for elastic contact4.6 Carpick-Ogletree-Salmeron (COS) model5 See also6 References7 External links
History
Classical contact mechanics is most notably associated with Heinrich Hertz.
[4]
In 1882 Hertz solved the probleminvolving contact between two elastic bodies with curved surfaces. This still-relevant classical solution provides afoundation for modern problems in contact mechanics. For example, in mechanical engineering and tribology,
Hertziancontact stress
, is a description of the stress within mating parts. In general, the Hertzian contact stress usually refers tothe stress close to the area of contact between two spheres of different radii.It was not until nearly one hundred years later that Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts found a similar solution for the case of adhesive contact.
[5]
This theory was rejected by Boris Derjaguin and co-workers
[6]
who proposed a different theory of adhesion
[7]
in the 1970s. The Derjaguin model came to be known as the DMT (after Derjaguin, Muller and Toporov)model,
[7]
and the Johnson et al. model came to be known as the JKR (after Johnson, Kendall and Roberts) model for adhesive elastic contact. This rejection proved to be instrumental in the development of the Tabor
[8]
and later Maugis
[6][9]
parameters that quantify which contact model (of the JKR and DMT models) represent adhesive contact better for specific materials.
6/8/2011Contact mechanics - Wikipedia, the freen.wikipedia.org//Contact_mechanics2/18

When a sphere is pressed against an elasticmaterial, the contact area increases.
Further advancement in the field of contact mechanics in the mid-twentieth century may be attributed to names such asBowden and Tabor. Bowden and Tabor were the first toemphasize the importance of surface roughness for bodies incontact.
[10][11]
Through investigation of the surface roughness, thetrue contact area between friction partners is found to be less thanthe apparent contact area. Such understanding also drasticallychanged the direction of undertakings in tribology. The works of Bowden and Tabor yielded several theories in contact mechanicsof rough surfaces.The contributions of Archard (1957)
[12]
must also be mentioned indiscussion of pioneering works in this field. Archard concludedthat, even for rough elastic surfaces, the contact area isapproximately proportional to the normal force. Further importantinsights along these lines were provided by Greenwood andWilliamson (1966),
[13]
Bush (1975),
[14]
[15]
The main findings of these works were that the true contact surfacein rough materials is generally proportional to the normal force,while the parameters of individual micro-contacts (i.e. pressure,size of the micro-contact) are only weakly dependent upon theload.
The classical theory of contact focused primarily on non-adhesive contact where no tension force is allowed to occur within the contact area, i.e., contacting bodies can be separated without adhesion forces. Several analytical andnumerical approaches have been used to solve contact problems that satisfy the no-adhesion condition. Complex forcesand moments are transmitted between the bodies where they touch, so problems in contact mechanics can become quitesophisticated. In addition, the contact stresses are usually a nonlinear function of the deformation. To simplify the solution procedure, a frame of reference is usually defined in which the objects (possibly in motion relative to one another) arestatic. They interact through surface tractions (or pressures/stresses) at their interface.As an example, consider two objects which meet at some surface
S
in the (
x
,
y
)-plane with the
z
-axis assumed normal tothe surface. One of the bodies will experience a normally-directed pressure distribution
p
z
=
p
(
x
,
y
) =
q
z
(
x
,
y
)
and in- plane surface traction distributions
q
x
=
q
x
(
x
,
y
)
and
q
y
=
q
y
(
x
,
y
)
over the region
S
. In terms of a Newtonian force balance, the forces:must be equal and opposite to the forces established in the other body. The moments corresponding to these forces:are also required to cancel between bodies so that they are kinematically immobile.
Assumptions in Hertzian theory
6/8/2011Contact mechanics - Wikipedia, the freen.wikipedia.org//Contact_mechanics3/18