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E&G - Quaternary Science Journal Vol. 60 No 1: Loess in Europe

E&G - Quaternary Science Journal Vol. 60 No 1: Loess in Europe

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The papers of this Special Issue give remarkable new results and conclusions on loess from Europe underlining the excellence of loess archives for past climate and environment reconstructions from a local and regional perspective and their relationship to a more global interpretation (Frechen 2011 a, b). Loess is a clastic predominantly silt-sized sediment, which is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust. According to Pye (1995) four fundamental requirements are necessary for it formation: a dust source, adequate wind energy to transport the dust, a suitable accumulation area, and a sufficient amount of time. During the Quaternary, loess and loess-like sediments were formed in periglacial environments on mid-continental shield areas in Europe and Siberia, on the margins of high mountain ranges like in Tajikistan and on semi-arid margins of some lowland deserts like in China.
The papers of this Special Issue give remarkable new results and conclusions on loess from Europe underlining the excellence of loess archives for past climate and environment reconstructions from a local and regional perspective and their relationship to a more global interpretation (Frechen 2011 a, b). Loess is a clastic predominantly silt-sized sediment, which is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust. According to Pye (1995) four fundamental requirements are necessary for it formation: a dust source, adequate wind energy to transport the dust, a suitable accumulation area, and a sufficient amount of time. During the Quaternary, loess and loess-like sediments were formed in periglacial environments on mid-continental shield areas in Europe and Siberia, on the margins of high mountain ranges like in Tajikistan and on semi-arid margins of some lowland deserts like in China.

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Vol. 60No 12011
ss 0424-7116|DO 10.3285/eg.60.1
Ee by he Gea Qaeay Aca
Editor-in-Chief: Holger Freund
Eiszeitalter und GegenwartQuaternary Science Journal
GEOZON
E
&
G
LOEss  EOpE
GuEst Editor
Manfred Frechen
 
Editor
DEUQUADeutsche Quartärvereinigung e.V.OfceStilleweg 2D-30655 HannoverGermanyTel: +49 (0)511-643 36 13E-Mail: ino (at) deuqua.dewww.deuqua.org
ProduCtion Editor
SAbE HEMS, Greiswald (Germany)Geozon Science MediaPostach 3245D-17462 GreiswaldGermanyTel. +49 (0)3834-80 40 60E-Mail: helms (at) geozon.netwww.geozon.net
Aims & sCoPE
The
Quaternary Science Journal
pulishesoriginal articles o quaternary geology,geography, palaeontology, soil science,archaeology, climatology etc.; special issueswith main topics and articles o lectures oseveral scientic events.
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Editor-in-CHiEF
HOGER FREUD, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)CbM – GeoecologyCarl-von-Ossietzky Universität OldenurgSchleusenstr 1D-26382 WilhelmshavenGermanyTel.: +49 (0)4421-94 42 00Fax: +49 (0)4421-94 42 99E-Mail: holger.reund (at) uni-oldenurg.de
FormEr Editors-in-CHiEF
PAU WODSTEDT (1951–1966)MART SCHWARbACH (1963–1966)ERST SCHHAS (1968–1978)REHOD HUCREDE (1968–1978)HAS DETRCH AG (1980–1990)JOSEF OSTERMA (1991–1999)WOFGAG SCHRMER (2000)ERST bRUOTTE (2001–2005)
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AR-ERST bEHRE, Wilhelmshaven (Germany)HAS-RUDOF bOR, iel (Germany)ART bROGER, iel (Germany)JÜRGE EHERS, Hamurg (Germany)ETEE JUVGÉ, iège (belgium)WGHART VO OEGSWAD, bonn (Germany)ESE OSTRUP, Uppsala (Sweden)JA POTROWS, Aarhus (Denmark)UDWG RESCH, Erlangen (Germany)JEF VADEbERGHE, Amsterdam (The etherlands)bERD OTSCHA, bremen (Germany)
GuEst Editor
MAFRED FRECHE, Hannover (Germany)Volume 60 / umer 1 / 2011 / DO: 10.3285/eg.60.1 / SS 0424-7116 /www.quaternary-science.net / Founded in 1951
Eiszeitalter und GegenwartQuaternary Science Journal
E
&
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3
E&G / Vol. 60 / o. 1 / 2011 / 3–5 / DO
10.3285/eg.60.1.00
/
©
Author / Creative Common Attribution Licene
E
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Quaternary Science Journal
Volume 60 / umer 1 / 2011 / 3–5 /
DO
10.3285/eg.60.1.00www.quaternary-science.netGEOO SCECE MEDASS 0424-7116
Le  Epe
Guest Editorial
Manred Frechen
Ae f ah:
M. Frecen
,LeibnizInstituteforAppliedGeophysis(LIAG),Geocronology&IsotopeHydrology,Stilleweg2,30655Hannover,Germany.E-Mail:Manfred.Frecen@liag-hannover.de
TepapersofthisSpeialIssuegiveremarkablenewresultsandonlusionsonloessfromEuropeunderliningtheexel-leneofloessarcivesforpastlimateandenvironmentre-onstrutionsfromaloalandregionalperspetiveandtheirrelationshiptoamoreglobalinterpretation(F2011a,b).Loessisalastipredominantlysilt-sizedsediment,whicisformedbytheaumulationofwind-blowndust.AordingtoP(1995)fourfundamentalreuirementsareneessaryforitformation:adustsoure,adeuatewinden-ergytotransportthedust,asuitableaumulationarea,andasuientamountoftime.DuringtheQaternary,loessandloess-likesedimentswereformedinperiglaialenviron-mentsonmid-ontinentalshieldareasinEuropeandSiberia,onthemarginsofhighmountainrangeslikeinajikistanandonsemi-aridmarginsofsomelowlanddesertslikeinChina.Teterm“Löß”wasrstdesribedinCentralEuropebyKCäL(1823/24)whoreportedyel-lowishbrown,siltydepositsalongtheRhinevalleynearHeidelberg.CL(1834)broughtthistermintowidespreadusagebyobservingsimilaritiesbetweenloessandloessderivativesalongtheloessblusintheRhineandMississippi.Atthattimeitwasthoughtthattheyel-lowishbrownsilt-ricsedimentwasofuvialoriginbeingdepositedbythelargerivers.Ittookuntiltheendofthe19
th
enturyuntiltheaeolianoriginofloesswasreognized(VD'A1857),espeiallytheonviningobserva-tionsofloessinChinabyFR's(1878).Atremendousnumberofpapershavebeenpub-lishedsinethen,fousingontheformationofloessandonloess/palaeosolseuenesasarcivesoflimateanden-vironmentcange(e.g.P1995;S1995;PéR1996).Muceortwasputintotheseingupofregionalandloalloessstratigraphiesandtheirorrelation(K1970,1975,1977).Buteventhecronostratigraphialpositionofthelastinterglaialsoilorrelatingtomarineisotopesub-stage5ehasbeenamaerofdebate,owingtothelaofrobustandreliablenumerialdating,assummarizedforexampleinZetal.(1994)andF,HG(1997)fortheAustrianandHungarianloessstratig-raphy,respetively.Sinethe1980s,thermoluminesene(L),optiallystim-ulatedluminesene(OSL)andinfraredstimulatedlumines-ene(IRSL)datingareavailableprovidingthepossibilityfordatingthetimeofloess(dust)deposition,i.e.thetimeelapsedsinethelastexposureofthemineralgrainstoday-light.Duringthepastdeadeluminesenedatinghassig-niantlyimprovedbynewmethodologialimprovements,espeiallythedevelopmentofsinglealiuotregenerative(SAR)protools(MW2000)resultinginreli-ableages(orageestimates)withanaurayofupto5and10%forthelastglaialreord.Morereentlyluminesenedatinghasalsobeomearobustdatingtecniueforpenul-timateandantepenultimateglaialloess(e.g.etal.thisissue;Setal.thisissue)allowingforareliableor-relationofloess/palaeosolseuenesforatleastthelasttwointerglaial/glaialylesthroughoutEuropeandtheNorth-ernHemisphere(F2011a).Furthermore,thenumeri-aldatingprovidesthebasisforuantitativeloessresearcapplyingmoresophistiatedmethodstodetermineandun-derstandhigh-resolutionproxydata,sucasthepalaeodustontentoftheatmosphere,variationsoftheatmospheriir-ulationpaernsandwindsystems,palaeopreipitationandpalaeotemperature.TepapersofthisSpeialIssueonLoessinEuropegivethebasisforsubstantialfurthercallengingdevelopmentsinloessresearcandaresummarisedgeographiallyfromnorthtosouth.Lileisknownaboutthetimingofloessaumulationandsoilformationaswellastheselementhistoryinthe“Altmornengebiet”innorthernGermany.U,KG(thisissue)providesomeevideneforthehumanim-patonsoildevelopmentsinethelateNeolithibymeansofsedimentology,pedologyandpalynologyaswellasOSLandradioarbondating.W(thisissue)arriedoutaspatialompilationandvisualisationofloessparametersforloessandloess-likesedimentsintheWeser-Alleratcment,inludingpartsofsouthernLowerSaxonyandnorthernHesseinNorthwestGermany.Inthisstudy,verydetailedmapsofloessprop-ertypaernsinludingloessthiness,granulometryandstratigraphywereolletedfrompubliationsandhistorial-lymapspublishedbetween1876and2007resultinginmorethan600loessloationsprovidingthebaseinformationfortheareaunderstudy.Teloess/palaeosolseuenesfromSaxonywerere-in-vestigatedbyM,FF(thisissue),who

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