ACTIVE NOISE CANCELLATION IN HEADPHONES
Active noise reducing headphones are theapplication of active noise control .Activenoise control brought a revolutionarychange in detection and cancellation of low frequency noise. In this paper the authorsdiscuss the implementation of active noisecontrol to headphones.
Noise is any unwanted signal which isirritating and loud. Reduction of noise isimportant as prolonged exposure to acousticnoise of high level can lead to permanentloss in hearing. The presence of noise isinevitable but its effect can be reduced toalmost zero by using suitable techniques.The passive methods include the use of ear buds, earmuffs or circumaural headphones. The traditional passive methods of noise cancellation are not efficient enough incase of low frequency noise due to longwavelength of sound. Active noisecancellation is another technique which isused to attenuate the noise signal and is veryeffective.In active headphones the active noisereduction is the characteristic for theacoustic noise cancellation. The activeheadphones diminish the noise which is present in the environment. Suchheadphones can be used in very noisyenvironment to prevent the person using itfrom the excessive noise. These headphonescancel the effect of noise by generating ananti-noise signal thus cancelling out anynoise present at low frequencies effectively.The concept of active noise has existed sincethe beginning of 20
century. The first patent regarding the possibility of attenuating the background noise was issuedto Paul Lueg in 1933. The true research of active noise reduction in headphones wasdone by Dr. Amar Bose in 1978. In 1986,Bose applied the noise cancellationtechnology to develop headphones to protectthe hearing of the pilots participating in firstnon-stop around-the-world flight .
The passive methods are used mainly inevery headphone for the removal of thehigher and middle frequency noise. Anykind of headphones can provide passiveattenuation. This is because the material of which the headphones are made block highfrequency noise. To provide better attenuation bulky headphones with stiff cushions are used. But there are alwayslimitations for the size, thus suchheadphones fail for low frequency noise.