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Table Of Contents

1.1 The Importance of Leakage Reduction
1.2 Leakage and Usage
1.3 Sources of Leakage
1.4 Factors Influencing Leakage
1.5 Basics of Leakage Growth and Active Control
1.6 Leakage Control Strategies
1.7 Customer Reported Leakage
1.8 Future Considerations
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Energy Principles
2.3 Head Loss in Pipelines
2.4 The Hydraulic Gradient
2.5 Pipe Flow Formulae
2.6 Pipe Friction Diagrams
2.7 Network Analysis
3.1 Distribution Network Structure
3.2 District Meter Areas
3.3 Waste Meter Areas
3.4 Links to Other Data Information Systems
3.5 Commissioning
4.1Hierarchy of Metered Areas
4.2 District Metering
4.3 Waste Metering
4.4 Recent Metering Improvements
4.5 Meter Site Selection
4.6 Meter Installation Design
4.7 Meter Selection Criteria
4.8 Mechanical Meters - Helix (Woltmann)
4.9 Electromagnetic Flowmeters
4.10 Insertion Velocity Probes
4.11 Domestic Revenue Meters
5.1 Detection Principles
5.2 Stethoscopes (‘Listening’ or ‘Sounding’ Sticks)
5.3 Electronic Sounding Devices
5.4 The Mobile Advanced Step Tester (MAST)
5.5 Leak Noise Correlator (LNC)
5.6 Leak Noise Loggers
5.7 Non-Acoustic Equipment and Techniques
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Meter on Bypass
6.3 Heat Pulse Flow Meter
6.4 Pairs of Insertion Turbine Meters
6.5 Infra-Red Photography
6.6 Leak Noise Correlation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Location for Mains in a 2 Metre Footpath
7.3 Service Pipe Layouts
7.4 Valve Identification
7.5 Electronic Pipe Locators
8.1 Demand Patterns
8.2 Night Lines
8.3 The Development of Continuous Monitoring
8.4 Determination of Leakage from Night Flows
8.5 Necessary Checks
8.6 Large Area Sub-Division
8.7 Waste Metering
8.8 Step Testing
8.9 Acoustic (Noise) Logging
9.1 Sounding
9.2 Leak Noise Correlation
9.3 Visual Evidence
9.4 Other Practical Points
9.5 Confirmation
9.6 Repair, Follow-Up and Records
9.7 Leakage Contracts
10.2 Pressure Control Options
10.3Pressure Control Benefits
10.4Pressure Reduction Problems
10.5 Pressure and Leakage
10.8 Pressure Reducing Valves - General Overview
11.1 Introduction
11.2Policy Development Through An Economic Approach
11.3The Unit Cost of Leakage
11.4 Cost of Leakage Detection
11.5Typical Total Leakage Costs
11.6 Environmental and Social Costs
12.1Introduction
12.2Bursts and Background Losses
12.3Components of Night Flows
12.4Night Flow and Customer Use
12.5Losses from Bursts
12.6Estimating Background Night Flows in Individual DMA’s
12.7Prioritising Unreported Burst Location Activities
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
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Palmer Leakage Detection Guide

Palmer Leakage Detection Guide

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Published by Nikolai Graae

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Published by: Nikolai Graae on Jun 09, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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08/16/2013

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